843505.fig.002
Figure 2: Formation of AGEs in physiological systems. In early glycation, glucose reacts reversibly with amine groups on macromolecules to form a Schiff base and subsequently an Amadori product. This can undergo further oxidative and nonoxidative modifications to form AGEs. Alternatively, AGEs may also be formed by the direct reaction of reactive α,β-dicarbonyls with macromolecules.