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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 975832, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/975832
Review Article

From Prion Diseases to Prion-Like Propagation Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases

1Université Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier, France
2Inserm, U710, 34095 Montpellier, France
3EPHE, 75007 Paris, France

Received 17 May 2013; Revised 5 September 2013; Accepted 5 September 2013

Academic Editor: Roberto Chiesa

Copyright © 2013 Isabelle Acquatella Tran Van Ba et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative sporadic, inherited, or acquired disorders. In humans, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the most studied prion disease. In animals, the most frequent prion diseases are scrapie in sheep and goat, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and the emerging chronic wasting disease in wild and captive deer in North America. The hallmark of prion diseases is the deposition in the brain of PrPSc, an abnormal β-sheet-rich form of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) (Prusiner 1982). According to the prion hypothesis, PrPSc can trigger the autocatalytic conversion of PrPC into PrPSc, presumably in the presence of cofactors (lipids and small RNAs) that have been recently identified. In this review, we will come back to the original works that led to the discovery of prions and to the protein-only hypothesis proposed by Dr. Prusiner. We will then describe the recent reports on mammalian synthetic prions and recombinant prions that strongly support the protein-only hypothesis. The new concept of “deformed templating” regarding a new mechanism of PrPSc formation and replication will be exposed. The review will end with a chapter on the prion-like propagation of other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and tauopathies.