International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Structure of a Rhamnogalacturonan Fragment from Apple Pectin: Implications for Pectin Architecture Sun, 14 Dec 2014 10:06:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/347381/ A commercial apple pectin was sequentially digested with the cloned enzymes endopolygalacturonase, galactanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylogalacturonase, and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase-generated oligosaccharides were separated by ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Fractions from the ion exchange chromatography were pooled, lyophilized, and screened by MALDI-TOF MS. An oligosaccharide (RGP14P3) was identified and its structure, α-D-GalpA--α-L-Rhap--α-D-GalpA--α-L-Rhap--α-D-GalpA, determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry. This oligosaccharide probably represents a direct connection between homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan in pectin. Alternatively, it could indicate that the nonreducing end of rhamnogalacturonan starts with a galacturonic acid residue. Xiangmei Wu and Andrew Mort Copyright © 2014 Xiangmei Wu and Andrew Mort. All rights reserved. Kinetics and Mechanism of Micellar Catalyzed Oxidation of Dextrose by N-Bromosuccinimide in H2SO4 Medium Mon, 01 Dec 2014 00:10:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/783521/ Kinetics and mechanism of micellar catalyzed N-bromosuccinimide oxidation of dextrose in H2SO4 medium was investigated under pseudo-first-order condition temperature of 40°C. The results of the reactions studied over a wide range of experimental conditions show that NBS shows a first order dependence, fractional order, on dextrose and negative fractional order dependence on sulfuric acid. The determined stoichiometric ratio was 1 : 1 (dextrose : N-bromosuccinimide). The variation of Hg(OAC)2 and succinimide (reaction product) has insignificant effect on reaction rate. Effects of surfactants, added acrylonitrile, added salts, and solvent composition variation have been studied. The Arrhenius activation energy and other thermodynamic activation parameters are evaluated. The rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained data. A plausible mechanism has been proposed from the results of kinetic studies, reaction stoichiometry, and product analysis. The role of anionic and nonionic micelle was best explained by the Berezin’s model. Minu Singh Copyright © 2014 Minu Singh. All rights reserved. Thio-β-D-glucosides: Synthesis and Evaluation as Glycosidase Inhibitors and Activators Thu, 21 Aug 2014 11:15:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/941059/ Structurally simple 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosides were synthesized and tested as potential inhibitors toward several fungal glycosidases from Aspergillus oryzae and Penicillium canescens. Significant selective inhibition was observed for α- and β-glucosidases, while a weak to moderate activation for α- and β-galactosidases. Andrey V. Samoshin, Irina A. Dotsenko, Nataliya M. Samoshina, Andreas H. Franz, and Vyacheslav V. Samoshin Copyright © 2014 Andrey V. Samoshin et al. All rights reserved. Twenty Traditional Algerian Plants Used in Diabetes Therapy as Strong Inhibitors of α-Amylase Activity Tue, 05 Aug 2014 12:17:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/287281/ In the present work, we have studied the inhibitory effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of six Algerian medicinal plants known by their therapeutic virtues against diabetes. The total phenolic compounds content, assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, of the samples ranged from 0.183 mg/g to 43.088 mg/g and from 1.197 mg/g to 7.445 mg/g, expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE), for the, respectively, whereas the total flavonoids concentrations, detected using 2% of the aluminium chloride, ranged from 0.41 mg/g to 11.613 mg/g and from 0.0097 mg/g to 1.591 mg/g, expressed as rutin equivalents (RE), for the aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. The major plants were found to inhibit enzymatic activities of Aspergillus oryzae-amylase in a concentration dependent manner. The values of the inhibition constants () have been determined according to the Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk methods. The results showed that the values were less than 55 ppm for the all extracts. A strong inhibition was found in the phenolic extract of Salvia officinalis with a of 8 ppm. Ihcen Khacheba, Amar Djeridane, and Mohamed Yousfi Copyright © 2014 Ihcen Khacheba et al. All rights reserved. One Step Photopolymerization of N, N-Methylene Diacrylamide and Photocuring of Carboxymethyl Starch-Silver Nanoparticles onto Cotton Fabrics for Durable Antibacterial Finishing Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:28:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/380296/ The PI/UV system ((4-trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride/UV) was used to synthesize carboxymethyl starch- (CMS-) stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs so prepared had round shape morphology with size of 1–7 nm. The prepared AgNPs were utilized to impart antibacterial finishing for cotton fabrics. The PI/UV system was further utilized to fix AgNPs onto cotton fabrics by photocrosslinking of AgNPs-CMS composite onto cotton fabrics to impart durable antibacterial properties. Effect of irradiation time and incorporating N, N-methylene diacrylamide (MDA) in different concentrations on antibacterial performance before and after repeated washing cycles was studied. S. aureus and E. coli were used to evaluate the antibacterial performance of finished fabrics. The antibacterial performance was directly proportional to the irradiation time and concentration of MDA but inversely proportional to the number of washing cycles. The inhibition zone of S. aureus and E. coli is the same although they are different in the cell wall structure and mode of action due to the nanosize structure formed. M. A. El-Sheikh and H. M. Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 M. A. El-Sheikh and H. M. Ibrahim. All rights reserved. New View to Obtain Dryer Food Foams with Different Polysaccharides and Soy Protein by High Ultrasound Wed, 26 Mar 2014 09:52:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/259356/ The objective of this work was to determine the effects of high intensity ultrasound application on the foaming properties of soy protein-polysaccharides mixed solutions. To this end, foaming parameters during foam formation were analyzed. The samples were sonicated for 20 min using ultrasonic processor Vibra Cell Sonics, and model VCX 750 at a frequency of 20 kHz and an amplitude of 20%. The foams were produced by a Foamscan instrument. The evolution of the bubble size change in the foam was also determined by a second CCD camera. For all foamed systems, at two pHs 3 and 7, Foam expansion and Relative Foam Conductivity showed a great increase after ultrasonic treatment. Other parameters studied did not show difference. On the other hand, Final Time of Foaming and the Total Gas Volume incorporation for foams formation were correlated with the Relative Foam Conductivity decrease and the Foam Expansion increase when HIUS were applied in every system. Comparative bubble size and shape during the foam formation according to the treatments and pH used confirmed the parameters results. Karina D. Martínez and Cecilio Carrera Sanchez Copyright © 2014 Karina D. Martínez and Cecilio Carrera Sanchez. All rights reserved. Role of Polysaccharides in Complex Mixtures with Soy Protein Hydrolysate on Foaming Properties Studied by Response Surface Methodology Tue, 04 Feb 2014 07:06:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2014/474720/ The complex mixture studied, a hydrolyzed soy protein (HSP), κ-carrageenan (κC), and an hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), could be used as a foaming agent under refrigeration or heating conditions because of the presence of one polysaccharide (HPMC) that gels on heating and another (κC) that gels on cooling. The objective of this work was to study the role of these polysaccharides on foaming properties by whipping methods at heating conditions. For this purpose, response surface methodology was used to optimize the mixed product in foamed food systems. The obtained results showed that the combination of E4M, κC, and HSP is an adequate strategy to generate good foam capacity and stability at heating conditions. The huge stability increase of foams at heating conditions was ascribed to combined effect of polysaccharides: gelling property of E4M and the viscozieng character imparted by κC to continuous phase of foaming. Karina D. Martínez and Ana M. R. Pilosof Copyright © 2014 Karina D. Martínez and Ana M. R. Pilosof. All rights reserved. A Green Approach to Synthesize Silver Nanoparticles in Starch-co-Poly(acrylamide) Hydrogels by Tridax procumbens Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity Tue, 24 Dec 2013 15:04:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/539636/ A series of starch-co-poly(acrylamide) (starch-co-PAAm) hydrogels were synthesized by employing free radical redox polymerization. A novel green approach, Tridax procumbens (TD) leaf extract, was used for reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver nanoparticles in the starch-co-PAAm hydrogel network. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) studies. 22% of weight loss difference between hydrogel and silver nanocomposite hydrogel (SNCH) clearly indicates the formation of silver nanoparticles by TGA. TEM images indicate the successful incorporation of silver nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 10 nm in size and spherical in shape with a narrow size distribution. These developed SNCHs were used to study the antibacterial activity by inhibition zone method against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria such as Bacillus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated that these SNCHs can be used potentially for biomedical applications. Siraj Shaik, Madhusudana Rao Kummara, Sudhakar Poluru, Chandrababu Allu, Jaffer Mohiddin Gooty, Chowdoji Rao Kashayi, and Marata Chinna Subbarao Subha Copyright © 2013 Siraj Shaik et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Carbohydrate Based Schiff Bases: Importance of Sugar Moiety Thu, 12 Dec 2013 11:14:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/320892/ A series of D-glucosamine derivatives were synthesized (2–4) and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Some of the compounds investigated have shown significant antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains as well as a few fungal strains. The results suggest that the presence of sugar moiety is necessary to biological activity. Helmoz R. Appelt, Julieta S. Oliveira, Roberto C. V. Santos, Oscar E. D. Rodrigues, Maura Z. Santos, Elisiane F. Heck, and Líria C. Rosa Copyright © 2013 Helmoz R. Appelt et al. All rights reserved. Combination of Natural and Thermosensitive Polymers in Flocculation of Fine Silica Dispersions Mon, 11 Nov 2013 15:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/242684/ A novel strategy for faster and better flocculation in solid-liquid separation processes is reported: the use of the natural polyelectrolyte chitosan (CH2500) in combination with the biocompatible thermosensitive polymer poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL). Silica dispersions (Aerosil OX50) were used as model and evaluated by means of analytical centrifuge, laser diffraction, and turbidimetry studies. Results show that the sedimentation velocity is doubled by addition of PNVCL and that at 45°C the density of the sediment is 33% higher, as compared to the use of CH2500 only. This results from the temperature sensitive behavior of PNVCL that phase-separate expelling water at temperatures higher than its LCST (32–34°C) leading to compaction of the flocs. By using this strategy the sediment is more compact, contains less water, and contains a very small amount of biodegradable CH2500 and biocompatible PNVCL. Angel Licea-Claverie, Simona Schwarz, Christine Steinbach, Sandra Montserrat Ponce-Vargas, and Sabine Genest Copyright © 2013 Angel Licea-Claverie et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Synthesis of Dispiropyrrolidines Linked to Sugars Sun, 10 Nov 2013 09:34:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/340546/ An expedient method for the synthesis of glyco-dispiropyrrolidines is reported through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction (1,3 DC reaction). The novel glycosyl dipolarophiles derived from D-glucose underwent neat [3+2] cycloaddition reaction with the azomethine ylides generated from 1,2-diketones and sarcosine to give the corresponding glycosidic heterocycles in good yields. Sirisha Nallamala and Raghavachary Raghunathan Copyright © 2013 Sirisha Nallamala and Raghavachary Raghunathan. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Application of Nanocrystalline-Cellulose-Supported Acid Ionic Liquid Catalyst in Pechmann Reaction Tue, 29 Oct 2013 14:21:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/452580/ Nanocrystalline-cellulose-supported acidic ionic liquid carrying SO3H functional group was prepared using nanocrystalline cellulose, imidazole and 1,4-butane sultone as the source chemicals. The prepared nanocrystalline-cellulose-supported ionic liquid catalyst was characterized by AFM and SEM and its catalytic activity in the reaction of resorcinol with ethyl acetoacetate was tested in a solvent-free condition. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, and the ratio of catalyst on the conversion of resorcinol were investigated. A variety of coumarin derivatives were obtained in good yield in the absence of solvent. Moslem Mansour Lakouraj, Nazanin Bagheri, and Vahid Hasantabar Copyright © 2013 Moslem Mansour Lakouraj et al. All rights reserved. Analgesic Activity of a Glucan Polysaccharide Isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill Thu, 19 Sep 2013 16:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/846565/ A water soluble polysaccharide and its selective precipitated fractions (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated from hot water extract of fruiting bodies of Agaricus blazei Murril known as Agaricus brasiliensis to evaluate the analgesic activity of the materials in Swiss mice. The isolated material and its fractions were characterized by two-dimensional COSY and HMQC spectra as β-(1→6)-α-(1→4)-glucan-bound-protein polysaccharide constituted mainly by β-(1→6) glucan. The glucan-protein polysaccharide and its fractions were analyzed in relation to the protein, carbohydrate, and mineral elements contents. The analysis of the glucan-protein complex revealed a total carbohydrate content of 36.95% and protein conjugated content of 17.24%. The mineral elements found in larger proportion were K, Na, Ca, P, and Zn. The analgesic activity bioassay of the β-(1→6)-α-(1→4)-glucan bound-protein polysaccharide and its fractions in Swiss mice indicated a significant effect. Maria Leônia C. Gonzaga, Thiago M. F. Menezes, José R. R. de Souza, Nágila M. P. S. Ricardo, Ana L. P. Freitas, and Sandra de A. Soares Copyright © 2013 Maria Leônia C. Gonzaga et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Acrylic Acid-g-(-Carrageenan) Copolymer and Study of Its Application Tue, 11 Jun 2013 11:14:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/892615/ The effects of concentrations of peroxymonosulphate, mercaptosuccinic acid, hydrogen ion, acrylic acid, and carrageenan on grafting parameters were studied to find out the maximum grafting ratio. The corresponding values were found to be , , ,  mol dm−3, and  g dm−3, respectively. The optimal reaction time duration and reaction temperature were found to be 120 min and 40°C, respectively. The effect of hydrogen ion variation from 5.0 up to  mol dm−3 shows prompt changes on grafting parameter. The grafted copolymer was found more thermally stable than the ungrafted substrate. Also the grafted copolymer absorbed more water, namely hazardous metal cations. Hg2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+, showed better flocculation behavior than carrageenan. Arti Srivastava and Rajesh Kumar Copyright © 2013 Arti Srivastava and Rajesh Kumar. All rights reserved. Effect of Molecular Sizes of Chondroitin Sulfate on Interaction with L-Selectin Wed, 08 May 2013 13:36:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/856142/ Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chain of proteoglycans (PGs) which are widely distributed in the extracellular matrix and at cell surface. CS shows a highly structural diversity in not only molecular weight (MW) but sulfonation pattern. CS has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activity by having effects on cytokine production by helper T cells. In this study, we focused on the structures of CS chains, especially MW of CS, and investigated effect of the different MW of CS on binding affinity with L-selectin and cytokine production by murine splenocytes. Firstly, we fractionated CS by employing gel filtration chromatography and obtained several CS fractions with different MW. Then the interaction between fractionated CS and L-selectin was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Finally, the influence of MW of CS on cytokine production by murine splenocytes was investigated in vitro. The results showed that interferon-gamma production was significantly increased by mouse splenocytes cocultivated with CS. On the contrary, CS inhibited interleukin 5 production by murine splenocytes depending on MW of the cocultivated CS. These results strongly indicate the existence of the optimal molecular size for an anti-inflammatory effect of CS through cytokine production by murine splenocytes. Naoko Igarashi, Atsuko Takeguchi, Shinobu Sakai, Hiroshi Akiyama, Kyohei Higashi, and Toshihiko Toida Copyright © 2013 Naoko Igarashi et al. All rights reserved. Certain Rheological Aspects of Functionalized Guar Gum Wed, 24 Apr 2013 13:30:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/463907/ Guar gum and its derivatives are highly important industrial hydrocolloids as they find applications in various industrial sectors. Guar is a polymer of high molecular weight and its aqueous solutions exhibit unique rheological properties, which has led to its wide acceptance by the industry. In certain industrial applications low molecular weight guar and its derivatives are needed, and conventionally chemical depolymerisation of guar is carried out for this purpose. Radiation processing is a novel and green technology for carrying out depolymerization and can be an ideal substitute for chemical depolymerisation technique. In order to study the effect of radiation on guar derivatives, three types of derivatives have been taken in the present study: carboxymethyl, hydroxyethyl, and methyl guar. The effect of 1–50 KGy radiation dose on the rheological behavior of these derivatives has been studied, and the results have been described in the present paper. The effect on storage and loss modulus with respect to frequency and effect on viscosity with respect to shear rate have been discussed in detail. Meenu Kapoor, Dhriti Khandal, Ruchi Gupta, Pinklesh Arora, Geetha Seshadri, Saroj Aggarwal, and Rakesh Kumar Khandal Copyright © 2013 Meenu Kapoor et al. All rights reserved. Development and Characterization of Semi-IPN Silver Nanocomposite Hydrogels for Antibacterial Applications Thu, 21 Mar 2013 13:45:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/243695/ Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/poly(acrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were prepared by using free radical polymerization technique. Silver nanoparticles were formed by reduction of silver nitrate in semi-IPN hydrogels with sodium borohydrate at room temperature. UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetrical analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used to characterize the formation of silver nanoparticles in hydrogels. SEM images indicated clearly the formation of group of silver nanoparticles with size range of 10–20 nm. The sizes of silver nanoparticles were also supported by transmission electron microscopy results. The semi-IPN silver nanocomposite hydrogels reported here might be a potentially smart material in the range of applications of antibacterial activity. A. Chandra Babu, M. N. Prabhakar, A. Suresh Babu, B. Mallikarjuna, M. C. S. Subha, and K. Chowdoji Rao Copyright © 2013 A. Chandra Babu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Potential Use in Food, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic Industries Tue, 12 Mar 2013 15:15:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/537202/ Polysaccharides present in several seaweeds (Kappaphycus alvarezii, Calliblepharis jubata, and Chondrus crispus—Gigartinales, Rhodophyta; Gelidium corneum and Pterocladiella capillacea—Gelidiales, Rhodophyta; Laurencia obtusa—Ceramiales, Rhodophyta; Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Saccorhiza polyschides, Sargassum vulgare, and Padina pavonica—Phaeophyceae, Ochrophyta) are analyzed by spectroscopic techniques. The nature of the polysaccharides (with extraction and without any type of extraction) present in these seaweeds was determined with FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman analysis of extracted phycocolloids and ground dry seaweed. Leonel Pereira, Saly F. Gheda, and Paulo J. A. Ribeiro-Claro Copyright © 2013 Leonel Pereira et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Tribomechanical Micronization and Activation on Rheological, Thermophysical, and Some Physical Properties of Tapioca Starch Tue, 12 Mar 2013 09:18:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/657951/ The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of tribomechanical treatments on rheological, thermophysical, and some physical properties of tapioca starch. Samples of tapioca starch were treated using laboratory equipment for tribomechanical micronization and activation (TMA equipment). Before and after the TMA treatment, analysis of the particle size and particle size distribution was carried out, in addition to scanning electron micrography in tapioca starch. Scanning electron micrography showed that tribomechanical processing of tapioca starch resulted in breaking accumulations of starch granules in the form of granules. Pasting parameters have shown that maximal viscosities of model starch suspension have been decreasing after tribomechanical treatment. On the basis of gelatinization curves, it can be concluded that there are changes in the gelatinization point after treatment, and there is decrease in enthalpy of gelatinization for model suspension. After tribomechanical treatment, changes in physical properties of starch suspensions were determined, as well as specific swelling capacity, solubility index, and turbidity of tapioca starch suspensions. Zoran Herceg, Verica Batur, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić, Ines Gmajnički, and Igor Špoljarić Copyright © 2013 Zoran Herceg et al. All rights reserved. Production Methods for Hyaluronan Tue, 05 Mar 2013 08:53:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/624967/ Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide with multiple functions in the human body being involved in creating flexible and protective layers in tissues and in many signalling pathways during embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Hyaluronan is an important component of active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of, for example, arthritis and osteoarthritis, and its commercial value far exceeds that of other microbial extracellular polysaccharides. Traditionally hyaluronan is extracted from animal waste which is a well-established process now. However, biotechnological synthesis of biopolymers provides a wealth of new possibilities. Therefore, genetic/metabolic engineering has been applied in the area of tailor-made hyaluronan synthesis. Another approach is the controlled artificial (in vitro) synthesis of hyaluronan by enzymes. Advantage of using microbial and enzymatic synthesis for hyaluronan production is the simpler downstream processing and a reduced risk of viral contamination. In this paper an overview of the different methods used to produce hyaluronan is presented. Emphasis is on the advancements made in the field of the synthesis of bioengineered hyaluronan. Carmen G. Boeriu, Jan Springer, Floor K. Kooy, Lambertus A. M. van den Broek, and Gerrit Eggink Copyright © 2013 Carmen G. Boeriu et al. All rights reserved. Latent Fingerprint Enhancement Using Tripolyphosphate-Chitosan Microparticles Thu, 21 Feb 2013 12:04:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/615124/ Chitosan has been widely used in the preparation of microparticles for drug delivery; however, it has not been considered in forensic applications. Tripolyphosphate- (TPP-) chitosan microparticles were formed using ionotropic gelation in the presence of a coloured dye and deposited onto latent fingerprints enabling fingerprint identification. Issa M. A. Il Dueik and Gordon A. Morris Copyright © 2013 Issa M. A. Il Dueik and Gordon A. Morris. All rights reserved. Acetylation of Wood Flour from Four Wood Species Grown in Nigeria Using Vinegar and Acetic Anhydride Thu, 10 Jan 2013 18:30:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2013/141034/ Effect of acetylation on pretreated wood flour of four different wood species, Boabab (Adansonia digitata), Mahoganny (Daniella oliveri), African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) and Beech wood (Gmelina arborea), had been investigated. The first batch of wood species were acetylated using acetic anhydride while the second batch were acetylated with commercial vinegar. Both experiments were conducted in the presence of varying amount of CaCl2 as catalyst and at temperature of 120°C for 3 h. The success of acetylation was determined based on Weight Percent Gain for each sample treated with either chemicals used. FT-IR, a veritable tool was used for the analysis of both treated and untreated samples to further investigate the success of acetylation. The results showed the presence of important band such as carbonyl absorptions at 1743, 1744, 1746, 1731, 1718 and 1696 cm−1 as appeared separately in the spectra of acetylated samples, confirming esterification occurred. The purpose of this work was to investigate the applicability of vinegar for acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers. Blends/composites were prepared by solution casting and their kinetics investigated in distilled water. The results indicated they could be used in outdoor applications such as, decking and packaging. Yakubu Azeh, Gabriel Ademola Olatunji, Cheku Mohammed, and Paul Andrew Mamza Copyright © 2013 Yakubu Azeh et al. All rights reserved. Factors Involved in the In Vitro Fermentability of Short Carbohydrates in Static Faecal Batch Cultures Tue, 18 Dec 2012 07:50:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/197809/ In recent years, research has focused on the positive effects of prebiotics on intestinal health and gut microbiota. The relationship between their chemical structure and their fermentation pattern by human intestinal microbiota is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of this relationship and identify factors that may be used to design galactooligosaccharides that reach more distal regions than commercial prebiotics which mainly target the proximal colon. The following factors were investigated: monomer type, linkage, substitution, and degree of polymerisation. Total organic acid production from sugars by faecal bacteria was fitted to a model which allowed an estimate of the time when half of the maximal organic acid concentration was reached (T50) in static faecal batch cultures. The different factors can be grouped by their effectiveness at prolonging fermentation time as follows: substitution is most effective, with methylgalactose, -galactose-pentaacetate, D-fucose, and galactitol fermented more slowly than D-galactose. Monomers and linkage also influence fermentation time, with L rhamnose, arabinose, melezitose, and xylose being fermented significantly slower than D-glucose (), maltose, isomaltose, cellobiose, and gentiobiose showing that Glc1-6Glc and Glc1-4Glc were utilised slowest. Chain length had the smallest effect on fermentation time. Eva Gietl, Wim Mengerink, Jaap de Slegte, Glenn Gibson, Robert Rastall, and Ellen van den Heuvel Copyright © 2012 Eva Gietl et al. All rights reserved. New 1,2,3-Triazole Iminosugars Derivatives Using Click Chemistry Wed, 12 Dec 2012 15:01:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/394574/ The click concept refers ease, efficient, and the selective chemicals transformations. In this study, a novel regiospecific copper (I)-catalyzed 1, 3-dipolar of terminal alkynes to azide provided a practicable synthetic pathway of triazole iminosugars derivatives. A series of new triazole-pyrrolidinols are reported in good yield. Chahrazed Benhaoua Copyright © 2012 Chahrazed Benhaoua. All rights reserved. ZnO Nanoparticles-Chitosan Composite as Antibacterial Finish for Textiles Wed, 12 Dec 2012 12:40:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/693629/ The antibacterial performance of sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic hybrid polymers filled with ZnO nanoparticles-chitosan against a gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and a gram-positive Micrococcus luteus has been investigated. Three different molecular weights (MW) of chitosan (CTS) 1.36 · 105, 2.2 · 105, and 3.0 · 105 Da with equal degree of deacetylation (DD, 85%) (coded as S 85-60, He 85-250, and He 85-500) with equal degree of deacetylation (DD, 85%) were examined. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in isopropanol using lithium hydroxide (LiOH · H2O) to hydrolyze the precursor. Sol-gel-based inorganic-organic hybrid polymers were modified with these oxides and were applied to cellulosic cotton (100%) and cotton/polyester (65/35%) fabrics. Inorganic-organic hybrids polymers were based on 3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS). Bacteriological tests were performed in nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using ZnO nanoparticles with average particle size of (40 nm). Our study showed the enhanced antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles chitosan (different MW) of against a gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli DSMZ 498 and a gram-positive Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 in repeated experiments. The antibacterial activity of textile treated with ZnO nanoparticles chitosan increases with decreasing the molecular weight of chitosan. Asmaa Farouk, Shaaban Moussa, Mathias Ulbricht, and Torsten Textor Copyright © 2012 Asmaa Farouk et al. All rights reserved. Thermal and Photoresponsive Studies of Starch Modified with 2-(5-(4-Dimethylamino-benzylidine)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-3-yl)acetic Acid Sun, 09 Dec 2012 11:46:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/356563/ The present study describes the synthesis of a chromophoric system 2-(5-(4-dimethylamino-benzylidin)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid and its incorporation into starch through esterification of the hydroxyl group by the free carboxyl function of the chromophoric system by DCC coupling. The products were characterized by UV-visible, fluorescence, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopic methods. The newly developed system was subjected to photoresponsive studies such as light absorption, light stabilization and fluorescence emission. The free chromophoric system and the coupled product were also subjected to thermal analysis. The results show that modification enhances the light absorption and light fastening properties of the chromophoric system. Thermal stability of the polymeric system greatly enhances on attaching the chromophoric system. In view of these results the newly developed system is proposed as a nature friendly, green, and photoactive product which could find application in dyes, inks, paints, and so forth. Ambily Chandran, Sunny Kuriakose, and Tessymol Mathew Copyright © 2012 Ambily Chandran et al. All rights reserved. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Kinetic Studies of Ketene-Acetylated Wood/Cellulose High-Density Polyethylene Blends Thu, 29 Nov 2012 16:12:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/456491/ Acetylated cellulose and wood cellulose as well as untreated cellulose polyethylene blends were subjected to kinetic studies using water, 0.5 M NaOH, and 0.5 M HCl solutions in order to investigate their absorbent properties at 0.5/1.0 cellulose/wood cellulose/polyethylene matrix. The results of the absorption studies showed that the untreated cellulose and wood cellulose blends absorbed water and the acid and alkali solutions higher than the treated samples, which showed a reduction in acid, alkali, and water uptake. In this work, the effects of acetylation on the morphological studies of the polyethylene blends were obvious. The presence of acetyl groups improved the interfacial bonding between the polymer matrix and cellulose as well as the wood cellulose fibers, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Yakubu Azeh, Gabriel Ademola Olatunji, and Paul Andrew Mamza Copyright © 2012 Yakubu Azeh et al. All rights reserved. The Study of the Reaction of Pectin-Ag(0) Nanocomposites Formation Wed, 21 Nov 2012 12:54:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/459410/ Pectin polysaccharides (PSs) were isolated from a bark of Larix sibirica Ledeb. Structure of PS fragments determined by chemical transformations, chromatography, and spectroscopic analyses was found to be a linear galacturonane comprising 1,4-linked α-D-GalpA residues and a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I). The fifth part of galacturonane residues was methyl esterified at at C-2 and/or C-3 and C-6 atoms. Some of RG-I side chains were identified as arabinogalactan subunits with highly branched structure consisting of linear backbone with3,6)-β-D-Galp-(1residues, substituted at C-6 by neutral side chains. This side chains contained2,5)-α-L-Araf-(1and3,5)-α-L-Araf-(1residues and terminal arabinose in the pyranose and furanose form. It was found that “pectin-Ag(0)” nanobiocomposites were formed via the interaction between PS aqueous solutions and silver nitrate, with PS playing both reducing and stabilizing functions. It was shown that the content of Ag(0) particles in “pectin-Ag(0)” depended on the reaction conditions and can range from 0.1 to 72 %, the size of Ag(0) particles being 3–27 nm. Using 13C NMR technique, it was revealed that PS underwent destructive changes and they they were more considerable, more than the lot of Ag(I) that was inputed into the reactionary medium. Nadezhda Viktorovna Ivanova, Natalya Nikolaevna Trofimova, Lydmila Alexandrovna Es'kova, and Vasilyi Anatolievich Babkin Copyright © 2012 Nadezhda Viktorovna Ivanova et al. All rights reserved. Miscibility Studies of Hydroxypropyl Cellulose/Poly(Ethylene Glycol) in Dilute Solutions and Solid State Wed, 26 Sep 2012 10:00:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/906389/ The miscibility of Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blends over an extended range of concentrations in water. The viscosity, ultrasonic velocity, and refractive index of the above blend solutions have been measured at 30°C. The interaction parameters such as and μ proposed by Chee and α proposed by Sun have been obtained using the viscosity data to probe the miscibility of the polymer blends. The values indicated that the blends were miscible when HPC content is more than 40% in the blend. The obtained results have been confirmed by the ultrasonic velocity and refractive index studies. The films of the blends were prepared by solution casting method using water as a solvent. The prepared films have been characterized by analytical techniques such as FTIR, DSC, X-RD, and SEM to probe the miscibility of HPC/PEG blends. The compatibility in the above compositions may be due to the formation of H-bonding between hydroxyl groups of HPC and etheric oxygen atom of PEG molecules. K. Sudharsan Reddy, M. N. Prabhakar, P. Kumara Babu, G. Venkatesulu, U. Sajan Kumarji Rao, K. Chowdoji Rao, and M. C. S. Subha Copyright © 2012 K. Sudharsan Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer of Dextran and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane Sulphonic Acid Sun, 02 Sep 2012 14:22:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcc/2012/209085/ A novel biodegradable graft copolymer of dextran (Dx) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) was synthesized by grafting poly-AMPS chains onto dextran backbone by free radical polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. Different amounts of AMPS were used to synthesize four different grades of graft copolymers with different side chain lengths. These grafted polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, rheological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). They exhibited efficient flocculation performance in kaolin suspension. Venkanna Azmeera, P. Adhikary, and S. Krishnamoorthi Copyright © 2012 Venkanna Azmeera et al. All rights reserved.