528290.fig.004a
(a)
528290.fig.004b
(b)
528290.fig.004c
(c)
Figure 4: Concentration dependence of effective transport number of protons in cation-exchange membrane and that of hydroxyl ions in anion-exchange membranes forming MK-40//MA-40 and MK-40/Nf//MA-40M desalination channels at potential drops ( ) 2.5 V (a), 4.0 V (b), and 6.0 V (c) per cell pair.