|Table 1: Some characteristics of commercial MK-40, MA-40, and surface-modified MK-40/Nf and MA-40M membranes.|
1Ion exchange capacity was determined for wet membranes in the sodium form (cation exchange membranes) or in the chloride form (anion exchange membranes).|
2Surface fraction of ion exchange material was determined for a wet membrane using SEM images by the method described in .
3Contact angle on the surface of wet membrane was found 20 s after placing a test drop, according to the method described in .
4Specific electrical conductivity of membrane in 0.5 M NaCl solution was determined by a difference method using a clip cell .
5Diffusion permeability of membranes was determined in H2O/IEM/0.5 M NaCl system using the cell described in ; the modified side of MK-40/Nf membrane was facing the NaCl solution; the left- and right-hand sides of MK-40, MA-40, and MA-40M membranes are symmetrical.