Table 1: Geometrical and physical properties of the system.

Riser internal diameter, 0.102 m
Standpipe/L-valve diameter, 0.063 m
Riser height, H 4.0 m
Particle density, 2,700 kg/m3
Particle Sauter mean diameter, 353 μm
Particle specific heat, 830 J/kg K
Minimum fluidization velocity1, 0.06 m/s
Particle transport velocity2, 5.78 m/s
Particle Geldart groupB

1Wen and Yu [28]; 2Bai et al. [29].