Table 3: Drag force models.

No.AuthorEquation

(1)Ishii and Zuber [44]
(2)Tomiyama [45]
(Wellek et al. [46])
(3)Tomiyama [47] (pure system)
(4)Ishii and Zuber [44]
(distorted regime)
(5)Clift et al. [48]
0.44  
(6)Tomiyama [47] (contaminated system)