- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 492058, 16 pages
Life Cycle Costs and Life Cycle Assessment for the Harvesting, Conversion, and the Use of Switchgrass to Produce Electricity
Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0002, USA
Received 2 May 2013; Revised 16 July 2013; Accepted 21 July 2013
Academic Editor: Antonia Pérez de los Ríos
Copyright © 2013 Nuttapol Lerkkasemsan and Luke E. K. Achenie. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- IEA, Climate and Electricity Annual 2011, OECD Publishing, Paris, France, 2011.
- D. Y. Goswami, “A review and future prospects of renewable energy in the global energy system,” in Proceedings of the ISES World Congress 2007 (Vol. I–Vol. V), D. Y. Goswami and Y. Zhao, Eds., pp. 3–10, Springer, 2008.
- A. Faaij, “Modern biomass conversion technologies,” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 343–375, 2006.
- K. Roland, “Petroleum in the next century—conclusion: global warming is dire oil industry issue,” The Oil and Gas Journal, vol. 96, no. 17, pp. 61–64, 1998.
- A. Richard, T. Berntsen, N. L. Bindoff, et al., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Summary for Policy Makers, Agenda Collective, Paris, France, 2007.
- D. J. Hofmann, J. H. Butler, and P. P. Tans, “A new look at atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 2084–2086, 2009.
- T. J. Hammons, “Impact of electric power generation on green house gas emissions in Europe: Russia, Greece, Italy and views of the EU power plant supply industry—a critical analysis,” International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 548–564, 2006.
- Administration EI, Administration USEI, A. E. Outlook, et al., “AEO 2012 early release overview,” Energy, vol. 2012, pp. 1–13, 2012.
- J. G. Brammer, M. Lauer, and A. V. Bridgwater, “Opportunities for biomass-derived “bio-oil” in European heat and power markets,” Energy Policy, vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 2871–2880, 2006.
- J. Fan, T. N. Kalnes, M. Alward, J. Klinger, A. Sadehvandi, and D. R. Shonnard, “Life cycle assessment of electricity generation using fast pyrolysis bio-oil,” Renewable Energy, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 632–641, 2011.
- Y. Solantausta, N. Nylund, and S. Gust, “Use of pyrolysis oil in a test diesel engine to study the feasibility of a diesel power plant concept,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 7, pp. 297–306, 1994.
- I. M. Arbon, “Worldwide use of biomass in power generation and combined heat and power schemes,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers A, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 41–57, 2002.
- D. Chiaramonti, A. Oasmaa, and Y. Solantausta, “Power generation using fast pyrolysis liquids from biomass,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 1056–1086, 2007.
- S. Arbogast, D. Bellman, J. D. Paynter, and J. Wykowski, “Advanced bio-fuels from pyrolysis oil: the impact of economies of scale and use of existing logistic and processing capabilities,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 104, pp. 121–127, 2012.
- A. A. Boateng, D. E. Daugaard, N. M. Goldberg, and K. B. Hicks, “Bench-scale fluidized-bed pyrolysis of switchgrass for bio-oil production,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 46, pp. 1891–1897, 2007.
- L. Rinehart, 2006, Switchgrass as a bioenergy crop. National Center for Appropriate Technology, http://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/switchgrass.pdf.
- K. David and A. J. Ragauskas, “Switchgrass as an energy crop for biofuel production: a review of its ligno-cellulosic chemical properties,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1182–1190, 2010.
- G. K. Evanylo, A. O. Abaye, C. Dundas et al., “Herbaceous vegetation productivity, persistence, and metals uptake on a biosolids-amended mine soil,” Journal of Environmental Quality, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1811–1819, 2005.
- S. B. McLaughlin and L. A. Kszos, “Development of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a bioenergy feedstock in the United States,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 515–535, 2005.
- M. A. Sanderson, P. R. Adler, A. A. Boateng, M. D. Casler, and G. Sarath, “Switchgrass as a biofuels feedstock in the USA,” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1315–1325, 2006.
- R. Lemus, E. C. Brummer, K. J. Moore, N. E. Molstad, C. L. Burras, and M. F. Barker, “Biomass yield and quality of 20 switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 433–442, 2002.
- J. H. Fike, D. J. Parrish, D. D. Wolf et al., “Switchgrass production for the upper southeastern USA: influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yields,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 207–213, 2006.
- Eco Smes, LCA definition according to SETAC.
- G. Rebitzer, T. Ekvall, R. Frischknecht et al., “Life cycle assessment, part 1: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications,” Environment International, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 701–720, 2004.
- M. Finkbeiner, A. Inaba, R. B. H. Tan, K. Christiansen, and H. Klüppel, “The new international standards for life cycle assessment: ISO 14040 and ISO 14044,” International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 80–85, 2006.
- D. Ravemark, “State of the art study of LCA and LCC tools,” 2003.
- H. Barringer, “A life cycle cost summary,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, pp. 1–10, September 2003.
- Y. Kawauchi and M. Rausand, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis in Oil and Chemical Process Industries, Toyo Engineering, Chiba, Japan, 1999.
- MATLAB, 2009.
- E. Costs, “Estimated costs for production, storage and transportation of switchgrass,” Production, pp. 1–8, 2008.
- Machinery Cost Estimates: Harvesting. Farm Business Management, pp. 0–4, 2010.
- Machinery Cost Estimates: Forage Field Operations. Farm Business Management, pp. 0–4, 2010.
- T. N. Maraseni, G. Cockfield, and A. Apan, “A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from inputs into farm enterprises in southeast Queensland, Australia,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health A, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 11–18, 2007.
- M. Duffy and V. Y. Nanhou, “Costs of producing switchgrass for biomass in southern Iowa,” in Proceedings of the 5th National Symposium New Crops and New Uses Strength in Diversity, J. Janick and A. Whipkey, Eds., pp. 267–275, ASHS Press, 2002.
- E. C. Brummer, C. L. Burras, M. D. Duffy, and K. J. Moore, Switchgrass Production in Iowa: Economic Analysis, Soil Suitability, and Varietal Performance, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn, USA, 2002.
- M. M. Wright, R. C. Brown, and A. A. Boateng, “Distributed processing of biomass to bio-oil for subsequent production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids,” Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 229–238, 2008.
- R. P. Overend, “The average haul distance and transportation work factors for biomass delivered to a central plant,” Biomass, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 75–79, 1982.
- Brazil Green Freight Transport Report. 2011.
- K. Paustian, J. Antle, J. Sheehan, and E. Paul, Agriculture’s Role in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 2006.
- R. A. Ney and J. L. Schnoor, Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Substituting Switchgrass for Coal in Electric Generation: The Chariton Valley Biomass Project, Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 2002.
- F. Cherubini and G. Jungmeier, “LCA of a biorefinery concept producing bioethanol, bioenergy, and chemicals from switchgrass,” The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 15, pp. 53–66, 2010.
- S. B. McLaughlin and M. E. Walsh, “Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 317–324, 1998.
- P. Jaramillo, A Life Cycle Comparison of Coal and Natural Gas for Electricity Generation and the Production of Transportation Fuels, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, 2007.
- GHGenius model.
- A. Oasmaa, C. Peacocke, S. Gust, D. Meier, and R. McLellan, “Norms and standards for pyrolysis liquids. End-user requirements and specifications,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 2155–2163, 2005.
- H. W. Beaty, Handbook of Electric Power Calculations, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
- L. Gagnon, Comparing Power Generation Options, 2003.
- M. Balat, M. Balat, E. Kirtay, and H. Balat, “Main routes for the thermo-conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals, part 1: pyrolysis systems,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3147–3157, 2009.
- K. Yoshikawa, “R&D (research and development) on distributed power generation from solid fuels,” Energy, vol. 31, no. 10-11, pp. 1656–1665, 2006.
- Y. Solantausta, A. Bridgwater, and D. Beckman, “Feasibility of power production with pyrolysis and gasification systems,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 9, no. 1–5, pp. 257–269, 1995.
- B. M. Wagenaar, E. Gansekoele, J. Florijn et al., “Bio-oil as natural gas substitute in a 350 MW power station,” in Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference on Biomass for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, pp. 10–14, 2004.
- G. R. Herdin, F. Gruber, D. Plohberger, and M. Wagner, “Experience with gas engines optimized for H2-rich fuels,” in Proceedings of the 2003 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division (ICES '03), ICES2003-596, pp. 679–690, May 2003.
- Restmac: Creating Markets For Renewable Energy Technologies EU RES Technology Marketing Campaign, European Biomass Industry Association, Brussels, Belgium.
- M. Schreiner, G. Kampichler, S. Krzack, and B. Meyer, “Thermodynamic modelling of co-firing coal and biomass pyrolysis gas in a power plant,” Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 787–792, 2011.
- S. Czernik and A. V. Bridgwater, “Overview of applications of biomass fast pyrolysis oil,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 590–598, 2004.
- The World Bank, Agricultural Land (% of Land Area), The World Bank, 2009.
- X. Qin, T. Mohan, M. El-Halwagi, G. Cornforth, and B. A. McCarl, “Switchgrass as an alternate feedstock for power generation: an integrated environmental, energy and economic life-cycle assessment,” Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 233–249, 2006.
- U. S. Energy Information Administration, Electric Power Monthly with Data for June 2012, 2012.
- U. S. Energy Information Administration, Electricity Explained Factors Affecting Electricity Price 2010.