Table 8: Biomass fast pyrolysis annual operating cost components based on the reference plant size [36].

Fast pyrolysis operation costCostExplanation

Water treatment1Linear scaling
Electricity0.21Linear scaling
Labor1.340.6 power law scaling
Overhead0.860% labor
Maintenance0.572% equip
Insurance/taxes0.721.5% TCI
Charcoal (credit)1.9250/ton