Table 1: EDCs and PPCPs investigated in the effluents.

Chemical nameClassificationMolecular weight (g mol−1)Water solubility (mg L−1 at 25°C)log

Estrone (E1)Steroid270.4303.43
17 β-Estradiol (E2)Steroid272.4253.94
17 α-Ethynylestradiol (EE2)Steroid296.44.84.15


Names StructureUses and effects

Estrone (E1) hormone secreted by the ovary.

17 β-Estradiol (E2) hormone—Oestrogen. Estradiol has a critical impact on reproductive and sexual functioning, as well as organs including bone structure.

17 α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) form of Estradiol used for contraception. and mood stabilizing drug, used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. to treat fever, pain, rheumatic fever, and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid pericarditis and arthritis. is found in soaps (0.15–0.30%), deodorants, toothpastes, mouth washes, and cleaning supplies, acting as antifungal and antibacterial. It is an endocrine disruptor. It can combine with chlorine in water to form chloroform which is a carcinogen.