International Journal of Chemical Engineering http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Optimal Extraction of Gallic Acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. Leaves and Enhanced Efficiency by Ionic Liquids Tue, 26 Jan 2016 11:55:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2016/5217802/ The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was initially applied to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. using 70% ethanol as extraction solvent. Temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), obtaining maximum levels of gallic acid (6.30 mg·g−1) at 51°C, 19.52 mL·g−1, and 42.68 min, respectively. The obtained model was statistically significant (). The verification experiments at the optimum conditions yielded gallic acid for 6.21 mg·g−1. Subsequently, under optimal conditions, four ionic liquids were used to extract gallic acid from Suaeda glauca Bge. The results indicated that the presence of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride allowed increasing the EE of gallic acid up to 8.90 mg·g−1. This might be interpreted in terms of the molecular interaction between ionic liquid and gallic acid. The use of ionic liquids involves a stronger gallic acid extraction capacity than conventional organic volatile solvents. A promising alternative process is proposed for the extraction of gallic acid of Suaeda glauca Bge. Xin-Hong Wang, Chen Cai, and Xue-Mei Li Copyright © 2016 Xin-Hong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Denaturation Kinetics of Whey Protein Isolate Solutions and Fouling Mass Distribution in a Plate Heat Exchanger” Wed, 20 Jan 2016 11:39:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2016/4924250/ Marwa Khaldi, Gilles Ronse, Christophe André, Pascal Blanpain-Avet, Laurent Bouvier, Thierry Six, Saloua Bornaz, Thomas Croguennec, Romain Jeantet, and Guillaume Delaplace Copyright © 2016 Marwa Khaldi et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation of the Hydrogenation of α-Methylstyrene on Catalytically Active Metal Foams as Tubular Reactor Packing Thu, 14 Jan 2016 11:47:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2016/7082381/ This work presents a one-dimensional reactor model for a tubular reactor packed with a catalytically active foam packing with a pore density of 30 PPI in cocurrent upward flow in the example of hydrogenation reaction of α-methylstyrene to cumene. This model includes material, enthalpy, and momentum balances as well as continuity equations. The model was solved within the parameter space applied for experimental studies under assumption of a bubbly flow. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was applied. For isothermal and polytropic processes and steady state conditions, axial profiles for concentration, temperature, fluid velocities, pressure, and liquid holdup were computed and the conversions for various gas and liquid flow rates were validated with experimental results. The obtained results were also compared in terms of space time yield and catalytic activity with experimental results and stirred tank and also with random packed bed reactor. The comparison shows that the application of solid foams as reactor packing is advantageous compared to the monolithic honeycombs and random packed beds. Farzad Lali, Felix-Aron Pahner, and Rüdiger Lange Copyright © 2016 Farzad Lali et al. All rights reserved. Research on Gas Hydrate Plug Formation under Pipeline-Like Conditions Sun, 06 Dec 2015 11:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/214638/ Hydrates of natural gases like methane have become subject of great interest over the last few decades, mainly because of their potential as energy resource. The exploitation of these natural gases from gas hydrates is seen as a promising mean to solve future energetic problems. Furthermore, gas hydrates play an important role in gas transportation and gas storage: in pipelines, particularly in tubes and valves, gas hydrates are formed and obstruct the gas flow. This phenomenon is called “plugging” and causes high operational expenditure as well as precarious safety conditions. In this work, research on the formation of gas hydrates under pipeline-like conditions, with the aim to predict induction times as a mean to evaluate the plugging potential, is described. Florian Stephan Merkel, Carsten Schmuck, Heyko Jürgen Schultz, Timo Alexander Scholz, and Sven Wolinski Copyright © 2015 Florian Stephan Merkel et al. All rights reserved. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Oil Extraction from Jatropha curcas L. Using Ethanol as a Solvent Thu, 03 Dec 2015 14:28:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/871236/ In the study the yield and kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the oil extraction process from Jatropha curcas L. using ethanol as a solvent were evaluated for different temperatures, moisture contents of the solid phase, and particle sizes. The extraction process yield increased with contact time of solid particles with the solvent until reaching equilibrium (saturation of the solvent), for all the temperatures, moisture contents, and average particle sizes. These parameters significantly influenced (95% confidence) the extracted oil yield. A convective mass transfer model was used to simulate the extraction process and estimate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. For all conditions evaluated, values of oil yield in the liquid phase close to equilibrium were obtained in approximately 20 min. The variations of enthalpy and entropy were positive, indicating that the process is endothermic and irreversible. Values obtained for the variation in Gibbs free energy showed that the extraction process using ethanol as a solvent is spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable for the moisture content of 0%, where the smaller the average particle size the greater the spontaneity of the process. Silmara Bispo dos Santos, Marcio Arêdes Martins, Ana Lívia Caneschi, Paulo Rafael Morette Aguilar, and Jane Sélia dos Reis Coimbra Copyright © 2015 Silmara Bispo dos Santos et al. All rights reserved. Nile Red Staining for Oil Determination in Microalgal Cells: A New Insight through Statistical Modelling Tue, 01 Dec 2015 09:43:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/695061/ In the wake of global warming and rapid fossil fuel depletion, microalgae emerge as promising feedstocks for sustainable biofuel production. Nile red staining acts as a rapid diagnostic tool to measure the amount of biodiesel-convertible lipid that the cells accumulate. There is a need for the development of a more uniform staining procedure. In its first phase, this study examined the dependence of microalgal Nile red fluorescence (Tetraselmis suecica) in terms of its most pertinent staining variables. A quadratic surface model that successfully described the Nile red fluorescence intensity as a composite function of its variables was generated (). Cell concentration was shown to have a significant effect on the fluorescence intensity. Up to a certain threshold, fluorescence intensity was shown to increase with Nile red dye concentration. In its second phase, the study reviewed findings from previous Nile red studies to elucidate some of the fundamental mechanism underlying the diffusion of Nile red dye molecules into the microalgal cells and their subsequent interaction with intracellular lipids. Through the review process, we were able to develop a simple framework that provided a set of guidelines for the standardization of the Nile red staining procedure across different microalgal species. Ronald Halim and Paul A. Webley Copyright © 2015 Ronald Halim and Paul A. Webley. All rights reserved. Effect of Flow and Dissolved Oxygen on the Compatibility of Pongamia pinnata Biodiesel with Common Construction Materials Used in Storage and Transportation Mon, 16 Nov 2015 16:15:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/463064/ The compatibility of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel (PBD) and its NaCl blends on aluminium, brass, copper, carbon steel, and mild steel has been studied by static mass loss and rotating cage methods. The effects of dissolved oxygen and flow on the metal corrosion in PBD were also observed. This study confirmed that the copper strip test alone is not enough to determine the fuel property since the corrosion of ferrous metal was found to be high in PBD compared to other metals. The least corrosion rate of aluminium was confirmed by surface morphology and elemental analysis. H. N. Meenakshi and R. Shyamala Copyright © 2015 H. N. Meenakshi and R. Shyamala. All rights reserved. DNN-Based ADNMPC of an Industrial Pickling Cold-Rolled Titanium Process via Field Enhancement Heat Exchange Mon, 16 Nov 2015 14:20:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/292470/ The dynamic neural network based adaptive direct nonlinear model predictive control is designed to control an industrial microwave heating pickling cold-rolled titanium process. The identifier of the direct adaptive nonlinear model identification and the controller of the adaptive nonlinear model predictive control are designed based on series-parallel dynamic neural network training by RLS algorithm with variable incremental factor, gain, and forgetting factor. These identifier and controller are used to constitute intelligent controller for adjusting the temperature of microwave heating acid. The correctness of the controller structure, the convergence, and feasibility of the control algorithms is tested by system simulation. For a given point tracking, model mismatch simulation results show that the controller can be implemented on the system to track and overcome the mismatch system model. The control model can be achieved to track on pickling solution concentration and temperature of a given reference and overcome the disturbance. Biao Yang, Jinhui Peng, Wei Li, Youling Li, Huilong Luo, Zhuming Zhang, Shenghui Guo, Shimin Zhang, Hezhou Su, and Yaming Shi Copyright © 2015 Biao Yang et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Chemoenzymatic Process for Preparation of Ribavirin Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:55:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/734851/ Ribavirin is an important antiviral drug, which is used for treatment of many diseases. The pilot-scale chemoenzymatic process for synthesis of the active pharmaceutical ingredient Ribavirin was developed with 32% overall yield and more than 99.5% purity. The described method includes the chemical synthesis of 1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide, which is a key intermediate and enzyme-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction for preparation of the desired product. 1,2,4-Triazole-3-carboxamide was synthesized from 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid by classical Chipen-Grinshtein method. Isolated from E. сoli BL21(DE3)/pERPUPHHO1 strain the purine nucleoside phosphorylase was used as a biocatalytical system. All steps of this process were optimized and scaled. Vladimir Sakharov, Sergey Baykov, Irina Konstantinova, Roman Esipov, and Mikhail Dorogov Copyright © 2015 Vladimir Sakharov et al. All rights reserved. Low Temperature Gasification of Coconut Shell with CO2 and KOH: Effects of Temperature, Chemical Loading, and Introduced Carbonization Step on the Properties of Syngas and Porous Carbon Product Mon, 16 Nov 2015 13:48:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/481615/ Effect of KOH, reaction temperature and time, and introduced carbonization step on the amount and composition of syngas as well as porous properties of the carbon products for CO2 gasification of coconut shell at low temperatures (300–700°C) was investigated. Results showed that the presence of potassium hydroxide and gasification temperature had a significant effect on the amount and composition of syngas product and facilitated the rate of hydrogen and carbon monoxide formation. It was also found that carbonization step could promote the generation of hydrogen gas as well as increasing the gas heating value per kg of gas. Furthermore, the porosity development of carbon product was found to be influenced by the chemical ratio and gasification temperature. The optimal conditions for achieving high hydrogen composition and specific surface area were to gasify coconut shell under CO2 at 600°C for 60 min with carbonization step and with chemical weight ratio of 3.0. This condition gave the hydrogen composition as high as 29.70 %weight of produced syngas with heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg of gas and specific surface area of 2650 m2/g of the carbon product. Natthaya Punsuwan, Chaiyot Tangsathitkulchai, and Takayuki Takarada Copyright © 2015 Natthaya Punsuwan et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Process Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis Approach for Chemical Plants Wed, 04 Nov 2015 12:09:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/864782/ Given their potentially enormous risk, process monitoring and fault diagnosis for chemical plants have recently been the focus of many studies. Based on hazard and operability (HAZOP) analysis, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), wavelet neural network (WNN), and fault tree analysis (FTA), a hybrid process monitoring and fault diagnosis approach is proposed in this study. HAZOP analysis helps identify the fault modes and determine process variables monitored. The KPCA model is then constructed to reduce monitoring variable dimensionality. Meanwhile, the fault features of the monitoring variables are extracted, so then process monitoring can be performed with the squared prediction error (SPE) statistics of KPCA. Then, multiple WNN models are designed through the use of low-dimensional sample data preprocessed by KPCA as the training and test samples to detect the fault mode online. Finally, FTA approach is introduced to further locate the fault root causes of the fault mode. The proposed approach is applied to process monitoring and fault diagnosis in a depropanizer unit. Case study results indicate that this approach can be applicable to process monitoring and diagnosis in large-scale chemical plants. Accordingly, the approach can serve as an early and reliable basis for technicians’ and operators’ safety management decision-making. Lijie Guo and Jianxin Kang Copyright © 2015 Lijie Guo and Jianxin Kang. All rights reserved. Denaturation Kinetics of Whey Protein Isolate Solutions and Fouling Mass Distribution in a Plate Heat Exchanger Wed, 04 Nov 2015 07:13:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/139638/ Few investigations have attempted to connect the mechanism of dairy fouling to the chemical reaction of denaturation (unfolding and aggregation) occurring in the bulk. The objective of this study is to contribute to this aspect in order to propose innovative controls to limit fouling deposit formation. Experimental investigations have been carried out to observe the relationship between the deposit mass distribution generated in plate heat exchangers (PHE) by a whey protein isolate (WPI) mainly composed of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and the ratio between the unfolding and aggregation rate constants. Experiments using a PHE were carried out at a pilot scale to identify the deposit distribution of a model fouling solution with different calcium contents. In parallel, laboratory experiments were performed to determine the unfolding/aggregation rate constants. Data analysis showed that (i) β-Lg denaturation is highly dependent on the calcium content, (ii) for each fouling solution, irrespective of the imposed temperature profile, the deposit mass in each channel and the ratio between the unfolding and aggregation rate constants seem to be well correlated. This study demonstrates that both the knowledge of the thermal profile and the β-Lg denaturation rate constants are required in order to predict accurately the deposit distribution along the PHE. Marwa Khaldi, Gilles Ronse, Christophe André, Pascal Blanpain-Avet, Laurent Bouvier, Thierry Six, Saloua Bornaz, Thomas Croguennec, Romain Jeantet, and Guillaume Delaplace Copyright © 2015 Marwa Khaldi et al. All rights reserved. A Study of CO2 Methanation over Ni-Based Catalysts Supported by CNTs with Various Textural Characteristics Mon, 26 Oct 2015 06:22:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/795386/ This work studied the influence of textural characteristics of CNTs on catalytic performance of Ni/CNTs for CO2 methanation. The CNTs supports were prepared by chemical vapor deposition method using Ni/MgO catalysts, and acetonitrile and ethanol were used as carbon sources, respectively. The Ni/CNTs catalysts were prepared via impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, and temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) techniques. The results indicated that the textural characteristics of CNTs supports significantly impacted on the catalytic performance of Ni/CNTs. The catalyst Ni/CNTs-E (CNTs using ethanol as carbon source) had good reducibility, high specific surface area, and moderate defects, resulting in higher CO2 conversion and CH4 yield, followed by Ni/CNTs-C (commercial CNTs) and Ni/CNTs-A (CNTs using acetonitrile as carbon source). Based on Arrhenius formula, activation energies of the catalysts were calculated and were found decreased for Ni/CNTs-A and Ni/CNTs-E. Yanyan Feng, Wen Yang, and Wei Chu Copyright © 2015 Yanyan Feng et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Manganese Complex of Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Tue, 29 Sep 2015 13:44:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/874340/ The manganese complex of methionine hydroxy analogue was synthesized with methionine hydroxy analogue and manganese chloride as main raw materials. The composition and structure of the complex were characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectra, and X-ray powder diffraction. The formula of the complex was Mn(C5H9O3S)2. The experimental results indicated that the manganese ion was, respectively, coordinated by the carboxylic and hydroxyl oxygen atoms from the methionine hydroxy analogue ligand. The crystal structure of the complex belonged to monoclinic system with the lattice parameters of = 1.2775 nm, = 1.5764 nm, = 1.5764 nm, and = 94.06°. The thermal decomposition process of the complex was studied by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The decomposition of the complex has taken place above 200°C. The residue was mainly manganese sulfide, and the experimental and calculated percentage mass loss was also given. The parameters of thermal decomposition kinetics for the complex, such as activation energy, reaction order, and preexponential factor, were calculated by using Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Freeman-Carroll methods, and the kinetic equations of the thermal decomposition were obtained. Mei-Ling Wang, Zhi-Xian Wu, Qing Zang, and Guo-Qing Zhong Copyright © 2015 Mei-Ling Wang et al. All rights reserved. Performance and Characterization for Blend Membrane of PES with Manganese(III) Acetylacetonate as Metalorganic Nanoparticles Tue, 15 Sep 2015 11:58:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/896486/ This study describes the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of performance of blend Polyethersulfone (PES) with manganese(III) acetylacetonate Mn(acac)3 to produce reverse osmosis blend membrane. The manganese(III) acetylacetonate nanoparticles were prepared by a simple and environmentally benign route based on hydrolysis of KMnO4 followed by reaction with acetylacetone in rapid stirring rate. The prepared nanoparticle powder was dissolved in polymer solution mixture to produce RO PES/Mn(acac)3 blend membrane, without any treatment of Polyethersulfone membrane surface. The membrane morphology, mechanical properties, and performance were presented. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images have displayed a typical asymmetric membrane structure with a dense top layer due to the migration of Mn(acac)3 nanoparticles to membrane surface during the phase inversion process. Contact angle measurements have indicated that the hydrophilicity of the membrane was improved by adding Mn(acac)3. AFM images have proved excellent pores size distribution of blend membrane and lower surface roughness compared with bare PES. The desalination test was applied to blend membrane, where the blend membrane provided good performance; particularly, permeate flux was 24.2 Kg/m2·h and salt rejection was 99.5%. H. Abdallah, M. S. Shalaby, and A. M. H. Shaban Copyright © 2015 H. Abdallah et al. All rights reserved. Mixed Convection over an Inclined Wavy Surface in a Nanofluid Saturated Non-Darcy Porous Medium with Radiation Effect Mon, 07 Sep 2015 07:06:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/927508/ The problem of mixed convection in a nanofluid along an inclined wavy surface embedded in a non-Darcy porous medium with radiation effect is analyzed. Coordinate transformation is employed to transform the complex wavy surface to a smooth surface. The governing equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations using the appropriate similarity transformation and then solved using the successive linearization method. The present results are compared with previously published work and are found to be in very good agreement. The effect of pertinent parameters on the nondimensional velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction, heat, and nanoparticle mass transfer rates is studied and presented graphically. Darbhasayanam Srinivasacharya and Poshala Vijay Kumar Copyright © 2015 Darbhasayanam Srinivasacharya and Poshala Vijay Kumar. All rights reserved. Regeneration of Spent Lubricant Refining Clays by Solvent Extraction Mon, 31 Aug 2015 07:03:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/207095/ Step-by-step solvent extraction was used to regenerate spent clay by recovering the adsorbed oil in lubricating oil refining clay. Several polar and nonpolar solvents were tested, and petroleum ether (90–120°C) and ethanol (95 v%) were selected as the nonpolar and polar solvents, respectively. The spent clay was first extracted using petroleum ether (90–120°C) to obtain ideal oil and then extracted with a mixed solvent of petroleum ether (90–120°C) and ethanol (95 v%) two or three times to obtain nonideal oil before being extracted with ethanol and water. Finally, the clay was dried at 130°C to obtain regenerated clay. The total oil recovery can be more than 99 wt% of the adsorbed oil. The recovered ideal oil can be used as lubricating base oil. Shorter storage times for spent clay produce better regeneration results. The regenerated clay can be reused to refine the lubricating base oils. Yan-zhen Wang, Hai-long Xu, Li Gao, Meng-meng Yan, Hong-ling Duan, and Chun-min Song Copyright © 2015 Yan-zhen Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Metastability and Nucleation Thresholds of Ibuprofen in Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures Sun, 16 Aug 2015 07:41:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/560930/ To investigate the crystallization of ibuprofen [((RS)-2-(4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl) propanoic acid)] from ethanol and water-ethanol mixtures it is necessary to know the nucleation limits of its solutions. In the absence of crystals, nucleation will seldom occur below the PNT (primary nucleation threshold). If crystals are present, nucleation will seldom occur until below the lower SNT (secondary nucleation threshold). Below the SNT, crystals will still grow with negligible nucleation. PNT and SNT values (expressed as relative supersaturation σ) have been measured at 10, 25, and 40°C for ibuprofen in ethanol and in a range of mixtures of different ethanol (E)/water (W) ratios. The induction times were determined from observing the times to nucleate for a range of different supersaturated solutions at a given temperature and E/W ratio. As expected, lowering the supersaturation leads to longer induction times. In ethanol, the SNT values are small and thus the secondary metastable zone width (MSZW) is relatively narrow with a 1 h SNT relative supersaturation typically about σ ~ 0.05. The 1 h PNT values are much larger with values for σ around 0.3. In aqueous ethanolic mixtures at 25°C, both the PNT and SNT decrease as the water content increases. Abdur Rashid, Edward T. White, Tony Howes, James D. Litster, and Ivan Marziano Copyright © 2015 Abdur Rashid et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation of Vertical Plunging Jet Using a Hybrid Multifluid–VOF Multiphase CFD Solver Thu, 30 Jul 2015 09:40:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/925639/ A novel hybrid multiphase flow solver has been used to conduct simulations of a vertical plunging liquid jet. This solver combines a multifluid methodology with selective interface sharpening to enable simulation of both the initial jet impingement and the long-time entrained bubble plume phenomena. Models are implemented for variable bubble size capturing and dynamic switching of interface sharpened regions to capture transitions between the initially fully segregated flow types into the dispersed bubbly flow regime. It was found that the solver was able to capture the salient features of the flow phenomena under study and areas for quantitative improvement have been explored and identified. In particular, a population balance approach is employed and detailed calibration of the underlying models with experimental data is required to enable quantitative prediction of bubble size and distribution to capture the transition between segregated and dispersed flow types with greater fidelity. Olabanji Y. Shonibare and Kent E. Wardle Copyright © 2015 Olabanji Y. Shonibare and Kent E. Wardle. All rights reserved. Fe(III)/TiO2-Montmorillonite Photocatalyst in Photo-Fenton-Like Degradation of Methylene Blue Mon, 25 May 2015 06:36:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/485463/ A photodegradation process of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution using Fe(III)/TiO2-montmorillonite photocatalyst is presented. The photocatalyst material was prepared using Indonesian natural montmorillonite in TiO2 pillarization process followed by Fe(III) ion exchange. Kinetic study on MB degradation was conducted and evaluated by three kinetic models: the pseudo-first- and second-order equations and the Elovich equation. From the results, it is concluded that the degradation under the photo-Fenton-like process utilizing Fe(III)/TiO2-montmorillonite photocatalyst conformed to the Elovich kinetic model. Is Fatimah, Iwan Sumarlan, and Tuty Alawiyah Copyright © 2015 Is Fatimah et al. All rights reserved. Kinetic Study and Thermal Decomposition Behavior of Lignite Coal Thu, 30 Apr 2015 11:54:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/481739/ A thermogravimetric analyzer was employed to investigate the thermal behavior and extract the kinetic parameters of Canadian lignite coal. The pyrolysis experiments were conducted in temperatures ranging from 298 K to 1173 K under inert atmosphere utilizing six different heating rates of 1, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 K min−1, respectively. There are different techniques for analyzing the kinetics of solid-state reactions that can generally be classified into two categories: model-fitting and model-free methods. Historically, model-fitting methods are broadly used in solid-state kinetics and show an excellent fit to the experimental data but produce uncertain kinetic parameters especially for nonisothermal conditions. In this work, different model-free techniques such as the Kissinger method and the isoconversional methods of Ozawa, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, and Friedman are employed and compared in order to analyze nonisothermal kinetic data and investigate thermal behavior of a lignite coal. Experimental results showed that the activation energy values obtained by the isoconversional methods were in good agreement, but Friedman method was considered to be the best among the model-free methods to evaluate kinetic parameters for solid-state reactions. These results can provide useful information to predict kinetic model of coal pyrolysis and optimization of the process conditions. Mehran Heydari, Moshfiqur Rahman, and Rajender Gupta Copyright © 2015 Mehran Heydari et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Strong Acid Hydrolysis Processing on the Thermal Stability and Crystallinity of Cellulose Isolated from Wheat Straw Sun, 05 Apr 2015 07:21:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/658163/ Cellulose extractions from wheat straw via hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis methods were carried out. X-ray diffraction spectral analyses reveal that depending on the acid conditions used the structure of the cellulose exhibited a mixture of polymorphs (i.e., CI and CIII cellulose phases). In addition, the percent crystallinity, diameter, and length of the cellulose fibers varied tremendously as determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis measurements revealed that the thermal stability of the extracted cellulose varied as a function of the acid strength and conditions used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the aggregation of cellulose fibers during the drying process is strongly dependent upon the drying process and strength of the acids used. Chemar J. Huntley, Kristy D. Crews, Mohamed A. Abdalla, Albert E. Russell, and Michael L. Curry Copyright © 2015 Chemar J. Huntley et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods Mon, 30 Mar 2015 09:36:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/826709/ The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the medium polarity methanol extract of the leaf portion (645.60 ± 166.68 gallic acid equivalents/100 g (GAEs/100 g)). It also showed the highest antioxidant power for FRAP and DPPH radical inhibition and exhibited the largest inhibition zone in antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis (Gram+), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram+), and Escherichia coli (Gram−). The phase behavior and aldehyde profiles were further investigated using SFE with different cosolvents. The results indicated that a 50% ethanol-water cosolvent yielded the best aldehyde profiles in the presence of decanal, undecanal, and dodecanal. Norsyamimi Hassim, Masturah Markom, Nurina Anuar, Kurnia Harlina Dewi, Syarul Nataqain Baharum, and Normah Mohd Noor Copyright © 2015 Norsyamimi Hassim et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of CuNi/C and CuNi/-Al2O3 Catalysts for the Reverse Water Gas Shift Reaction Sun, 22 Mar 2015 13:29:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/750689/ A new polyol synthesis method is described in which CuNi nanoparticles of different Cu/Ni atomic ratios were supported on both carbon and gamma-alumina and compared with Pt catalysts using the reverse water gas shift, RWGS, reaction. All catalysts were highly selective for CO formation. The concentration of CH4 was less than the detection limit. Cu was the most abundant metal on the CuNi alloy surfaces, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS, measurements. Only one CuNi alloy catalyst, Cu50Ni50/C, appeared to be as thermally stable as the Pt/C catalysts. After three temperature cycles, from 400 to 700°C, the CO yield at 700°C obtained using the Cu50Ni50/C catalyst was comparable to that obtained using a Pt/C catalyst. Maxime Lortie, Rima Isaifan, Yun Liu, and Sander Mommers Copyright © 2015 Maxime Lortie et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Process Variables via CFD to Evaluate the Performance of a FCC Riser Tue, 24 Feb 2015 14:19:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/259603/ Feedstock conversion and yield products are studied through a 3D model simulating the main reactor of the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is used with Eulerian-Eulerian approach to predict the fluid catalytic cracking behavior. The model considers 12 lumps with catalyst deactivation by coke and poisoning by alkaline nitrides and polycyclic aromatic adsorption to estimate the kinetic behavior which, starting from a given feedstock, produces several cracking products. Different feedstock compositions are considered. The model is compared with sampling data at industrial operation conditions. The simulation model is able to represent accurately the products behavior for the different operating conditions considered. All the conditions considered were solved using a solver ANSYS CFX 14.0. The different operation process variables and hydrodynamic effects of the industrial riser of a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) are evaluated. Predictions from the model are shown and comparison with experimental conversion and yields products are presented; recommendations are drawn to establish the conditions to obtain higher product yields in the industrial process. H. C. Alvarez-Castro, E. M. Matos, M. Mori, W. Martignoni, and R. Ocone Copyright © 2015 H. C. Alvarez-Castro et al. All rights reserved. Model-Based Control of a Continuous Coating Line for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Electrode Assembly Sun, 18 Jan 2015 14:28:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2015/572983/ The most expensive component of a fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA), which consists of an ionomer membrane coated with catalyst material. Best-performing MEAs are currently fabricated by depositing and drying liquid catalyst ink on the membrane; however, this process is limited to individual preparation by hand due to the membrane’s rapid water absorption that leads to shape deformation and coating defects. A continuous coating line can reduce the cost and time needed to fabricate the MEA, incentivizing the commercialization and widespread adoption of fuel cells. A pilot-scale membrane coating line was designed for such a task and is described in this paper. Accurate process control is necessary to prevent manufacturing defects from occurring in the coating line. A linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller was developed based on a physics-based model of the coating process to optimally control the temperature and humidity of the drying zones. The process controller was implemented in the pilot-scale coating line proving effective in preventing defects. Vikram Devaraj, Luis Felipe Lopez, Joseph J. Beaman, and Serge Prudhomme Copyright © 2015 Vikram Devaraj et al. All rights reserved. Fluence Rate in UV Photoreactor for Disinfection of Water: Isotropically Radiating Cylinder Mon, 10 Nov 2014 14:04:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2014/310720/ The calculation of fluence rate in the photochemical reactor using ultraviolet (UV) radiation for disinfection of water for the case, when a cylinder of infinite length is used as a light source, has been considered. Such a cylinder is filled with an isotropically radiating medium. The dependence of the fluent rate on the diameter of the radiating cylinder has been analytically analyzed. The limiting case when the diameter of the radiating cylinder tends to zero has been considered and the notion of “effective interval” has been introduced. Based on this notion, the comparison of fluence rates for the cylinders of finite and infinite lengths has been performed. In the calculations of fluence rate, it is advisable to use the Chebyshev method for the operations of numerical integration. Roman Ilinsky and Andrey Ulyanov Copyright © 2014 Roman Ilinsky and Andrey Ulyanov. All rights reserved. Recent Trends in Integrated Biorefineries Development for Sustainable Production Sun, 09 Nov 2014 12:43:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2014/258057/ Diego T. Santos, Adriano V. Ensinas, Anuj K. Chandel, François Maréchal, and M. Angela A. Meireles Copyright © 2014 Diego T. Santos et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Indium Recovery and Separation from LCD Waste by Solvent Extraction with Bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphate (D2EHPA) Sun, 28 Sep 2014 10:00:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2014/186768/ Indium tin oxide (ITO) is currently the choice of electrode material in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). D2EHPA is known to be an extractant that can be used to selectively recover indium from 1 M sulfuric acid. In order to optimize the extraction and separation of indium from LCD waste, the effects of pH, temperature, time, and extractant concentration on the distribution ratios of In(III) and the major impurities such as Al(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) were investigated. Metal concentrations in the aqueous feed were based on the concentrations found in the leach liquor of LCD panel glass at 0.1 g/mL S/L ratio. This study showed that extraction of indium could be increased at <293 K and stripping of indium could be increased at >293 K. Furthermore, by increasing D2EHPA concentration from 0.1 M to 0.25 M, extraction of indium could be increased from 70% to >95%. Jiaxu Yang, Christian Ekberg, and Teodora Retegan Copyright © 2014 Jiaxu Yang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Titanium Containing SBA-15 and Its Application for Photocatalytic Degradation of Phenol Tue, 09 Sep 2014 08:41:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2014/691562/ We synthesized Ti-containing SBA-15 by one-pot hydrothermal method and extensively investigated its physicochemical properties and examined its photocatalytic activity to degrade phenol. It’s shown that appropriate amount of titanium could be effectively incorporated into the framework of SBA-15 without provoking structure change and the tetrahedrally coordinated titanium species were well-ordered in Ti-incorporated SBA-15. Under UV-irradiation, the Ti-containing SBA-15 exhibits good photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation in the simulated waste water. The higher photocatalytic activity of Ti-containing SBA-15 to degrade phenol was ascribed to the more titanium content and anatase titanium dioxide. In addition, the new photocatalyst displays a good regeneration and cyclic performance after six runs. Lili Yang, Zeyu Jiang, Sufeng Lai, Chongwen Jiang, and Hong Zhong Copyright © 2014 Lili Yang et al. All rights reserved.