- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

International Journal of Differential Equations

VolumeΒ 2011Β (2011), Article IDΒ 913125, 11 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/913125

## Improved Regularization Method for Backward Cauchy Problems Associated with Continuous Spectrum Operator

Laboratoire Equations DiffΓ©rentielles, DΓ©partement de MathΓ©matiques, FacultΓ© des Sciences Exactes, UniversitΓ© Mentouri Constantine, Constantine 25000, Algeria

Received 29 May 2011; Revised 17 August 2011; Accepted 26 September 2011

Academic Editor: AlbertoΒ Cabada

Copyright Β© 2011 Salah Djezzar and Nihed Teniou. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

We consider in this paper an abstract parabolic backward Cauchy problem associated with an unbounded linear operator in a Hilbert space , where the coefficient operator in the equation is an unbounded self-adjoint positive operator which has a continuous spectrum and the data is given at the final time and a solution for is sought. It is well known that this problem is illposed in the sense that the solution (if it exists) does not depend continuously on the given data. The method of regularization used here consists of perturbing both the equation and the final condition to obtain an approximate nonlocal problem depending on two small parameters. We give some estimates for the solution of the regularized problem, and we also show that the modified problem is stable and its solution is an approximation of the exact solution of the original problem. Finally, some other convergence results including some explicit convergence rates are also provided.

#### 1. Introduction

Let be a positive (we suppose that ), self-adjoint unbounded linear operator which has a continuous spectrum on a Hilbert space such that generates a contraction -semigroup on . Let be a positive real number. We consider the final value problem (FVP) of finding such that for some prescribed final value in . Such problems are not well posed; that is, even if a unique solution exists on , it need not depend continuously on the finial value .

This type of problems, in the case where has a discrete spectrum, has been considered by many authors using different approaches. Such authors as LattΓ¨s and Lions [1], Lavrentiev [2], Miller [3], Payne [4], and Showalter [5] have approximated the final value problem (FVP) (1.1), (1.2) by perturbing the operator .

A similar problem is treated in a different way; see [6β8]. By perturbing the final value condition, they approximated the problem (1.1), (1.2) with

A similar approach known as the method of auxiliary boundary conditions was given in [9β11]. Also, the nonstandard conditions of the form (1.3) for parabolic equations have been considered in some recent papers [12, 13]. For further results related to these type of problems, we can also see [14, 15]. It is also worth reading the recent paper by Campbell Hetrick and Hunhes [16] dealing with inhomogeneous ill-posed problems in Banach space. We also mention the very recent papers by Tuan [17] and Tuan et al. [18] which deal with similar ill-posed problems using different approaches. For some comments on the results presented in paper [17] using a different regularization approach (the truncation regularization method), see Remark 3.6 at the end of this paper.

In this paper, we perturb both (1.1) and the final condition (1.2) to form an approximate nonlocal problem depending on two small parameters and , with boundary condition containing a derivative of the same order than the equation as follows: where the operator is replaced by the operator and by , and , where , .

We show that the approximate problems are well posed and that their solutions converge if and only if the original problem has a classical solution. We also show that this method gives a better approximation than many other quasireversibility and quasiboundary type methods, for example, [1, 6, 7, 19β21]. Finally, we obtain several other results, including some explicit convergence rates.

Throughout this paper, we will denote by a Hilbert space, the resolution of the identity associated with the positive unbounded self-adjoint operator . So the spectral representation of semigroup (resp., ) is given by (resp., , and so for all , and this is characterized by Also, throughout this work, we mean by a solution of problem (1.1), (1.2) on the interval a function such that, for all and (1.1), (1.2) hold. A useful characterization of the admissible set for which problem (1.1), (1.2) has a solution is as follows: Problem (1.1), (1.2) has a solution if and only if , and this unique solution is represented by (see [19], Lemma 1]).

#### 2. The Approximate Problem

We approximate the final value problem (1.1), (1.2), by the following perturbed problem: where is as above and is the Yosida approximation of operator , and where .

*Definition 2.1. *Define the function
for and , where is the semigroup generated by .

Now, we give the following theorem where the proof is based on the semigroups theory [22].

Theorem 2.2. *The function is the unique solution of the perturbed problem (2.1), and it depends continuously on .*

*Proof. *We consider the following classical Cauchy problem:
It is clear that is the unique solution and
The continuous dependence of on is obtained by showing that

Now, we consider the following problem:

Theorem 2.3. *The problem (2.6) is well posed, and its solution is given by
**
furthermore,
*

*Proof. *Since
then,

Now we give some convergence results.

#### 3. The Convergence Results

Theorem 3.1. *For all , as .*

*Proof. *We have
Putting
and if we put
then we get
It is clear that, for all , there exists and .

If we put
then we have
Finally, choosing such that , we obtain the following estimate
which gives the desired result.

Let us denote by , the following set:

It is clear that the following proprieties hold Now, we give some convergence results with explicit convergence rates.

Theorem 3.2. *If , then one has
**
for and
**
such that
*

*Proof. *Using the proof of the previous theorem, we have
where
If , then we have
And, for , we have
We also have
Then, using the above estimates, we get the desired results.

Now, let be the function defined by

Theorem 3.3. *For all , the problem (1.1), (1.2) has a solution if and only if the function is continious at . Furthermore, , uniformly in .*

*Proof. *We assume that and . Let . So, we have
Hence,
Since and and so by the unicity of the limit, we obtain that is a solution to problem (1.1), (1.2).

Now, we suppose that is a solution to problem (1.1), (1.2). Since (see [19], Lemma 1), then we have
Let and , such that . If and . Then,
If we put
then we have
Using analogous calculations as in the proof of Theorem 3.1, we obtain
Now, if , then by choosing such that
we find that . This means that the function is continuous at .

We note that we can easily show that for . And by using Theorem 3.1 again, we see that

Theorem 3.4. *If , then one has
**
for . And
**
such that
*

*Proof. *Since
then using Theorem 3.2, we get the required result.

Corollary 3.5. *If , then one has
**
for . And
*

*Proof. *Using Theorem 3.3, we have
And, by Theorem 3.4, we obtain the desired result.

*Remark 3.6. *We note that in a very recent paper by Tuan [17] a new use of a different regularization method (the truncation method) is introduced for dealing with a similar class of problems. This truncation method consists in eliminating all high frequencies from the solution of the considered ill-posed problem to get an approximate regularized solution together with some stability and error estimates that he indicates to be of Holder type. In particular, the author gives some estimates which hold at and so he gets the convergence of the approximate solution at . For a significant comparison with these results obtained by this truncation regularization method, one needs the determination and selection, for each case, of a possible appropriate regularization parameter . However, the method of regularization presented in our work still gives a better approximation than many other quasireversibility and quasi-boundary type methods, for example, [1, 6, 7, 19β21].

*Conclusion 1. *(1.1) Note that, in this work, the error factor introduced by small changes in the final value is of order and in a recent work [21], by the same authors, the error factor given was of order .

(1.2) We also note that the error factor given in [7] (resp. in [1]) is of order (resp., ) and so and .

(1.3) Also the error factor given in Boussetila and Rebbani [19] is of order and since , for and so for all operators , considered above, our method of approximation gives a better approximation than the methods given by Boussetila and Rebbani in [19] and other authors, for example, [1, 7].

#### References

- R. Lattès and J.-L. Lions,
*Méthode de Quasi-Réversibilité et Applications*, Travaux et Recherches Mathématiques, no. 15, Dunod, Paris, France, 1967. - M. M. Lavrentiev,
*Some Improperly Posed Problems of Mathematical Physics*, vol. 11 of*Springer Tracts in Natural Philosophy*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1967. - K. Miller, βStabilized quasi-reversibility and other nearly-best-possible methods for non- well-posed problems,β in
*Symposium on Non-Well Posed Problems and Logarithmic Convexity (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972)*, vol. 316 of*Lecture Notes in Mathematics*, pp. 161β176, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1973. - L. E. Payne, βSome general remarks on improperly posed problems for partial differential equations,β in
*Symposium on Non-Well Posed Problems and Logarithmic Convexity (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 1972)*, vol. 316 of*Lecture Notes in Mathematics*, pp. 1β30, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1973. View at Zentralblatt MATH - R. E. Showalter, βThe final value problem for evolution equations,β
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 563β572, 1974. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Ababna, βRegularization by nonlocal conditions of the problem of the control of the initial condition for evolution operator-differential equations,β
*Vestnik Belorusskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta. Seriya 1. Fizika, Matematika, Informatika*, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 60β63, 1998 (Russian). - G. W. Clark and S. F. Oppenheimer, βQuasi-reversibility methods for non-well posed problems,β
*Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*, no. 8, pp. 1β9, 1994. - R. E. Showalter, βCauchy problem for hyper-parabolic partial differential equations,β
*North-Holland Mathematics Studies*, vol. 110, no. C, pp. 421β425, 1985. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar - V. K. Ivanov, I. V. Mel'nikova, and A. I. Filinkov,
*Differentsialno-Operatornye Uravneniya i Nekorrektnye Zadachi*, Fizmatlit “Nauka”, Moscow, Russia, 1995. - I. V. Mel'nikova, βRegularization of ill-posed differential problems,β
*Sibirskii Matematicheskii Zhurnal*, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 125β134, 1992 (Russian). - I. V. Mel'nikova, βRegularization of ill-posed differential problems,β
*Siberian Mathematical Journal*, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 289β298, 1992. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at MathSciNet - K. A. Ames and L. E. Payne, βAsymptotic behavior for two regularizations of the Cauchy problem for the backward heat equation,β
*Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences*, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 187β202, 1998. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH - K. A. Ames, L. E. Payne, and P. W. Schaefer, βEnergy and pointwise bounds in some non-standard parabolic problems,β
*Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section A. Mathematics*, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 1β9, 2004. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - M. Denche and S. Djezzar, βA modified quasi-boundary value method for a class of abstract parabolic ill-posed problems,β
*Boundary Value Problems*, vol. 2006, Article ID 37524, 8 pages, 2006. View at Zentralblatt MATH - S. Djezzar, βRegularization method for an abstract backward Cauchy problem,β in
*Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Sciences (ICM '08)*, vol. 3, pp. 1116β1125, March 2008. - B. M. Campbell Hetrick and R. J. Hughes, βContinuous dependence results for inhomogeneous ill-posed problems in Banach space,β
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 331, no. 1, pp. 342β357, 2007. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - N. H. Tuan, βRegularization for a class of backward parabolic problems,β
*Bulletin of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 18β26, 2010. - N. H. Tuan, D. D. Trong, and P. H. Quan, βOn a backward Cauchy problem associated with continuous spectrum operator,β
*Nonlinear Analysis*, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 1966β1972, 2010. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH - N. Boussetila and F. Rebbani, βOptimal regularization method for ill-posed Cauchy problems,β
*Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*, no. 147, pp. 1β15, 2006. View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Denche and K. Bessila, βA modified quasi-boundary value method for ill-posed problems,β
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 301, no. 2, pp. 419β426, 2005. View at Publisher Β· View at Google Scholar Β· View at Zentralblatt MATH Β· View at MathSciNet - S. Djezzar and N. Teniou, βModified regularization method for backward Cauchy problems,β in
*Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Mathematical Sciences (CMS '11)*, pp. 1512β1519, Zarqa, Jordan, April 2011. - A. Pazy, βSemi-groups of linear operators and applications to partial differential equations,β in
*Applied Mathematical Sciences*, vol. 44, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1983.