Table 3: Agent module functionalities.

AgentFunctionality

Simulation control agent(i) Controls the WSN simulator (start/stop/pause/resume) and creates all other agents
(ii) Initialises the simulation parameters from input test data and configuration files

Cluster head agent(i) Represents each cluster head in the WSN simulator
(ii) Stores cluster head’s state information and performance metrics
(iii) Implements decision-making and network optimisation

GUI agent(i) Implements 3D visualisation and graph plotting capabilities and interactive GUI for users to control simulation parameters

Messaging agent(i) Implements the agent interface for WSN-Agent Layer integration
(ii) Converts ACL (Agent Communication Language) messages in Agent Layer to WSN simulator’s message format (e.g., commands, queries) and vice versa (e.g., status updates)
(iii) Maintains the socket connection with the WSN Gateway