Table 1: Simulation environment.

Simulation environmentQualnet 4.5

Routing protocolAODV
Intergateway routingOSPF
Intracluster communicationWireless (802.15.4)
Intercluster communicationWired (Ethernet)
Number of nodes100
Total terrain area1500 m × 1500 m
Simulation time4200 seconds
Total runs30