Table 1: Default simulation parameters.

Parameters Values

Sensor field 500 × 500 rectangle area
Number of nodes ( 𝑁 ) 150
Transmission range 50
Buffer or queue size [300, 450, 600, 750]
BS location (250,250), (0,500), (500,0)
Routing retrans. Interval 60 seconds
Message retrans. Interval 60 seconds
Sampling time 1 minute
Total simulation time 60 minutes
Contextual constant 𝛼 425 meters
Contextual constant 𝛽 20 minutes
Packet header size 25 bytes
Initial energy 2 J/battery
Data packet size 500 bytes
Routing packet size 25 bytes
Scale parameter for flight length 10
Scale parameter for pause time 1