International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Distributed Channel-Aware Quantization Based on Maximum Mutual Information Thu, 26 May 2016 14:23:37 +0000 In distributed sensing systems with constrained communication capabilities, sensors’ noisy measurements must be quantized locally before transmitting to the fusion centre. When the same parameter is observed by a number of sensors, the local quantization rules must be jointly designed to optimize a global objective function. In this work we jointly design the local quantizers by maximizing the mutual information as the optimization criterion, so that the quantized measurements carry the most information about the unknown parameter. A low-complexity iterative approach is suggested for finding the local quantization rules. Using the mutual information as the design criterion, we can easily integrate the effect of communication channels in the design and consequently design channel-aware quantization rules. We observe that the optimal design depends on both the measurement and channel noises. Moreover, our algorithm can be used to design quantizers that can be deployed in different applications. We demonstrate the success of our technique through simulating estimation and detection applications, where our method achieves estimation and detection errors as low as when designing for those special purposes. Sahar Movaghati and Masoud Ardakani Copyright © 2016 Sahar Movaghati and Masoud Ardakani. All rights reserved. An Efficient Approach for Stimulating Cooperation among Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 26 May 2016 13:44:03 +0000 A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), characterized as being self-organizing and multihop, consists of a large number of low-power and low-cost nodes. The cooperation among nodes is the foundation for WSNs to achieve the desired functionalities, such as the delivery or forwarding of packets. However, due to the limited resources such as energy, computational availability, and communication capabilities, there may exist some selfish nodes that refuse to cooperate with others. If the critical masses of nodes do not cooperate in the network, the network would not be able to operate to achieve its functional requirements. To resolve the problem above, we introduce a Win-Stay, Lose-Likely-Shift (WSLLS) approach into a Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game framework, and it applies a utility-based function, which is a linear combination of one player’s payoff and its neighbors’ in a game, to evaluate a player’s (i.e., node) performance for a game. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach performs well in stimulating cooperation in different settings under a certain condition with limited information, regardless of the static topologies types of WSNs, initial proportion of cooperation, and the average number of neighbors. Hongyun Xu, Ding Wang, Shigen Shen, Youqun Shi, and Qiying Cao Copyright © 2016 Hongyun Xu et al. All rights reserved. Improving Energy Efficiency in QoS-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 26 May 2016 12:58:52 +0000 Energy saving is often achieved via “squeezing” other application-sensitive Quality of Service (QoS) parameters such as delay and throughput. Accordingly, energy-saving methods must consider those QoS parameters. In this paper, we survey the most recent work on energy efficiency in WSNs and we discuss the impacts of these methods on the QoS provided. Moreover, we propose a novel divide-and-conquer procedure to deal with the trade-off between energy consumption and other QoS parameters. The idea is to tackle a certain source of energy consumption to minimize the drawn energy. Subsequently, this energy-saving method is refined to consider other service qualities. To support the correctness of our claim, three energy-saving methods, taking the QoS issues into consideration, are given as examples. The first method exploits a so-called Fuzzy transform for shrinking the wireless traffic with highly precise lossy data compression. In the second method, the sensing module is targeted by employing reliable virtual sensors. Such sensors compensate the unavailability of main energy-hungry sensors during sleep periods. The third method exploits a self-adaptive mechanism to improve the QoS parameters via deliberately reducing the lifetime below the maximum time and exploiting design-time knowledge. Mohamed Abdelaal, Oliver Theel, Christian Kuka, Peilin Zhang, Yang Gao, Vasilisa Bashlovkina, Daniela Nicklas, and Martin Fränzle Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Abdelaal et al. All rights reserved. Gateway Selection Game in Cyber-Physical Systems Thu, 26 May 2016 06:45:48 +0000 Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) obtain the information of the physical world and impact the environment through many different kinds of devices. Usually, devices with different wireless technologies communicate with each other and the external networks through gateways placed in the working area. Different kinds of devices in a CPS may not operate with each other for their own benefit, and the competition will be more intense between different kinds of devices. They will contend for bandwidth of gateways to increase their throughput and avoid transmission delay. In this paper, we formulate this gateway selection situation as a noncooperative game. We investigate the actions of devices when they change their gateway and the result of devices’ competition. We first give a bandwidth allocation model of gateways and propose a distributed algorithm for clients of gateway selection in order to increase the total bandwidth of their own kind. Then we investigate the migration trends of clients, and three theorems about the condition when clients stop migrating are given. We propose examples of gateway selection game with and without Nash Equilibrium. At last section, we give simulation results of gateway selection game. Hao Wang, Jianzhong Li, and Hong Gao Copyright © 2016 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Message Passing Based Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey Thu, 26 May 2016 06:00:21 +0000 Various protocols have been proposed in the area of wireless sensor networks in order to achieve network-wide time synchronization. A large number of proposed protocols in the literature employ a message passing mechanism to make sensor node clocks tick in unison. In this paper, we first classify Message Passing based Time Synchronization (MPTS) protocols and then analyze them based on different metrics. The classification is based on the following three criteria: structure formation of the network affected by the synchronization protocol, frequency of synchronization process (synchronization interval), and synchronization message overhead. Proposed protocols are analyzed and evaluated from different perspectives based on available data. A comparison table of the reviewed protocols is presented according to the evaluation metrics. Finally, some potential methods will be proposed to improve the synchronization process. Mohammad Ali Sarvghadi and Tat-Chee Wan Copyright © 2016 Mohammad Ali Sarvghadi and Tat-Chee Wan. All rights reserved. Efficient and Adaptively Secure Attribute-Based Proxy Reencryption Scheme Wed, 25 May 2016 11:21:00 +0000 Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Proxy Reencryption (CP-ABPRE) has found many practical applications in the real world, because it extends the traditional Proxy Reencryption (PRE) and allows a semitrusted proxy to transform a ciphertext under an access policy to the one with the same plaintext under another access policy. The existing CP-ABPRE schemes were proven secure only in the selective security model, a limited model, which is an unnatural constraint on the attacker. The scheme proved in this model can only be called selectively secure one. However, from a security perspective, the adaptively secure CP-ABPRE scheme is more desirable. In this paper, an adaptively secure CP-ABPRE scheme is proposed, which is based on Waters’ dual system encryption technology. The proposed scheme is constructed in composite order bilinear groups and proven secure under the complexity assumptions of the subgroup decision problem for 3 primes (3P-SDP). Analyses show that our proposal provides higher computational efficiency compared with the existing schemes. Huixian Li and Liaojun Pang Copyright © 2016 Huixian Li and Liaojun Pang. All rights reserved. A Vehicular Cloud-Based Framework for the Intelligent Transport Management of Big Cities Tue, 24 May 2016 09:39:36 +0000 An intelligent transport system (ITS) is intended to streamline the operations of vehicles, manage vehicle traffic, and help drivers with safety and other information, as well as supply convenient applications for passengers. This system is essential for tackling the problems of a big city, like traffic congestion and a lack of a communication infrastructure or traffic engineering, among other factors. With these challenges in mind, we propose a vehicular cloud architecture to assist in the management of large cities. This will create a framework to support different types of services as well as provide storage mechanisms, access, and information management which includes tools for different modes of transport not only for citizens but also for commercial vehicles and emergency services like ambulances. In addition, it will be possible to increase the capacity for abstraction to meet information needs through the use of vehicular networks and the integration of VANETs with other networks, so as to provide relevant information for the monitoring and management of an intelligent transport system. Rodolfo I. Meneguette Copyright © 2016 Rodolfo I. Meneguette. All rights reserved. Online Ensemble Using Adaptive Windowing for Data Streams with Concept Drift Tue, 24 May 2016 08:39:19 +0000 Data streams, which can be considered as one of the primary sources of what is called big data, arrive continuously with high speed. The biggest challenge in data streams mining is to deal with concept drifts, during which ensemble methods are widely employed. The ensembles for handling concept drift can be categorized into two different approaches: online and block-based approaches. The primary disadvantage of the block-based ensembles lies in the difficulty of tuning the block size to provide a tradeoff between fast reactions to drifts. Motivated by this challenge, we put forward an online ensemble paradigm, which aims to combine the best elements of block-based weighting and online processing. The algorithm uses the adaptive windowing as a change detector. Once a change is detected, a new classifier is built replacing the worst one in the ensemble. By experimental evaluations on both synthetic and real-world datasets, our method performs significantly better than other ensemble approaches. Yange Sun, Zhihai Wang, Haiyang Liu, Chao Du, and Jidong Yuan Copyright © 2016 Yange Sun et al. All rights reserved. A Flexible and Scalable Architecture for Real-Time ANT+ Sensor Data Acquisition and NoSQL Storage Mon, 23 May 2016 14:10:25 +0000 Wireless Personal or Body Area Networks (WPANs or WBANs) are the main mechanisms to develop healthcare systems for an ageing society. Such systems offer monitoring, security, and caring services by measuring physiological body parameters using wearable devices. Wireless sensor networks allow inexpensive, continuous, and real-time updates of the sensor data, to the data repositories via an Internet. A great deal of research is going on with a focus on technical, managerial, economic, and social health issues. The technical obstacles, which we encounter, in general, are better methodologies, architectures, and context data storage. Sensor communication, data processing and interpretation, data interchange format, data transferal, and context data storage are sensitive phases during the whole process of body parameter acquisition until the storage. ANT+ is a proprietary (but open access) low energy protocol, which supports device interoperability by mutually agreeing upon device profile standards. We have implemented a prototype, based upon ANT+ enabled sensors for a real-time scenario. This paper presents a system architecture, with its software organization, for real-time message interpretation, event-driven based real-time bidirectional communication, and schema flexible storage. A computer user uses it to acquire and to transmit the data using a Windows service to the context server. Nadeem Qaisar Mehmood, Rosario Culmone, and Leonardo Mostarda Copyright © 2016 Nadeem Qaisar Mehmood et al. All rights reserved. Parallel Irregular Fusion Estimation Based on Nonlinear Filter for Indoor RFID Tracking System Mon, 23 May 2016 11:35:57 +0000 In practical RFID tracking systems, usually it is impossible that the readers are placed right with a “grid” structure, so effective estimation method is required to obtain the accurate trajectory. Due to the data-driven mechanism, measurement of RFID system is sampled irregularly; therefore the traditional recursive estimation may fail from to sampling point. Moreover, because the distribution density of the readers is nonuniform and multiple measurements might be implemented simultaneously, fusion of estimations also needs to be considered. In this paper, an irregular estimation strategy with parallel structure was developed, where the dynamic model update and states fusion estimation were processed synchronously to achieve real-time indoor RFID tracking. Two nonlinear estimation methods were proposed based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF), respectively. The tracking performances were compared, and the simulation results show that the developed UKF method got lower covariance in indoor RFID tracking while the EKF one cost less calculating time. Xue-Bo Jin, Chao Dou, Ting-li Su, Xiao-fen Lian, and Yan Shi Copyright © 2016 Xue-Bo Jin et al. All rights reserved. Waterfalls Partial Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks Mon, 23 May 2016 09:13:31 +0000 In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), energy saving is a critical issue. Many research works have been undertaken to save energy. Data aggregation is one of the schemes that save energy by reducing the amount of data transmission. Normally, researchers focus on saving energy by aggregating multiple data or turning to achieving short transmission delay in data aggregation; few of them are concerned with network lifetime. This work achieves an optimum network lifetime by balancing energy consumption among nodes in network. Here, we propose a waterfalls partial aggregation, controlled by a set of waterfalls pushing rate vectors. The first contribution of this paper is to propose a waterfalls partial aggregation and to model it with queuing theory. The second contribution is that the optimum network lifetime is achieved mathematically and a near optimum algorithm is proposed for a given transmission delay. The results are compared with existing energy efficient algorithms and the evaluation results show the efficiency of proposed algorithm. Wuyungerile Li, Bing Jia, Shunsuke Saruwatari, and Takashi Watanabe Copyright © 2016 Wuyungerile Li et al. All rights reserved. MHM: A Multiple Handshaking MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Sun, 22 May 2016 09:30:45 +0000 Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are effective tools for exploring and observing the ocean. Due to the nonnegligible physical restrictions of the underwater acoustic communication, most MAC protocols applied in the existing terrestrial wireless networks become inapplicable. In this paper, we propose a multiple handshaking MAC protocol for UWASNs called multihandshaking MAC (MHM). Using the method of multiple handshaking and competitive mechanism of control packets, our protocol is proposed to make the contending nodes share the underwater acoustic channel much more fairly and more efficiently. The main idea of MHM is to allow multiple nodes to transmit and receive data packets at the same time without packet collisions. We also propose a competitive mechanism of control packets, which can guarantee that there will not be data collisions in the process of multiple packet transmissions. Simulation results show that our protocol can achieve better performance, including throughput, delay, and fairness. Wen Lin and Keyu Chen Copyright © 2016 Wen Lin and Keyu Chen. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis of M2M Sensor Networks Wed, 18 May 2016 10:24:08 +0000 The average symbol error probability (ASEP) and outage probability (OP) performance of mobile-to-mobile (M2M) senor networks employing transmit antenna selection (TAS) and selection combining (SC) over N-Nakagami fading channels are investigated in this paper. Based on the moment generating function (MGF) approach, the exact ASEP expressions are derived for several modulation schemes. The exact closed-form OP expressions are also presented. Then, the ASEP and OP performance under different conditions are evaluated through numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of the analysis. The simulation results show that the number of antennas, the fading coefficient, and the number of cascaded components have an important influence on the ASEP and OP performance. Jingjing Wang, Lingwei Xu, Xinli Dong, Wei Shi, and Qiuna Niu Copyright © 2016 Jingjing Wang et al. All rights reserved. An Azimuth-Based Dead-End Avoiding Routing Mechanism for Providing Reliable IP Connectivity in Multihop Wireless Networks Wed, 18 May 2016 07:05:54 +0000 In a multihop wireless network, such as a wireless sensor network (WSN), with nodes being aware of their locations, the geographic routing scheme is an effective way of delivering packets to their destinations because of its 1-hop beacon broadcasting based routing related information exchange operation. The routing information obtained via 1-hop beaconing is local in the sense that it is just 1-hop compared to the multihop end-to-end routing. Hence, at some point, packets may experience no more place to be forwarded to (i.e., dead-ends). In this paper, we propose a geographical routing mechanism adopting the concept of the azimuth to reduce the possibility of packets confronting dead-ends. In other words, the node with a packet to be forwarded to the final destination figures out the next-hop node by utilizing the azimuth of the destination as a routing metric. Besides, we propose additional routing metrics for stable next-hop node selection to provide reliable IP connectivity. In order to validate the performance of the proposed routing mechanism, we evaluate its performance through the NS-2 based simulations and show that our mechanism outperforms the other schemes in terms of the packet delivery success rate, the end-to-end delay, and the number of dead-end encounters. Hyun Yu and Sanghyun Ahn Copyright © 2016 Hyun Yu and Sanghyun Ahn. All rights reserved. IA2P: Intrusion-Tolerant Malicious Data Injection Attack Analysis and Processing in Traffic Flow Data Collection Based on VANETs Tue, 17 May 2016 13:04:06 +0000 Several studies investigating data validity and security against malicious data injection attacks in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have focused on trust establishment based on cryptology. However, the current researching suffers from two problems: (P1) it is difficult to distinguish an authorized attacker from other participators; (P2) the large scale of the system and high mobility set up an obstacle in key distribution with a security-based approach. In this paper, we develop a data-centric trust mechanism based on traffic flow theory expanding the notion of trust from intrusion-rejecting to intrusion-tolerant. First, we use catastrophe theory to describe traffic flow according to noncontinuous, catastrophic characteristics. Next, we propose an intrusion-tolerant security algorithm to protect traffic flow data collection in VANETs from malicious data injection attacks, that is, IA2P, without any security codes or authentication. Finally, we simulate two kinds of malicious data injection attack scenarios and evaluate IA2P based on real traffic flow data from Zhongshan Road in Dalian, China, over 24 hours. Evaluation results show that our method can achieve a 94% recognition rate in the majority of cases. Nan Ding, Guozhen Tan, and Wei Zhang Copyright © 2016 Nan Ding et al. All rights reserved. Noncoherent Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Communication System with Optimum Symbol Length Tue, 17 May 2016 11:21:15 +0000 A noncoherent low-frequency ultrasonic (LFU) communication system is proposed for near-field communication using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) speakers and microphones. Since the LFU communication channel is known to be a frequency-selective characteristic, the proposed system is basically designed by differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation with forward error correction. In addition, automatic gain control of the carrier frequency band over the LFU communication channel is proposed. Then, in order to optimize the symbol length of the proposed LFU communication system under a realistic aerial acoustic channel, a propagation model of the LFU communication channel is proposed by incorporating aerial acoustic attenuation. The performance of the proposed LFU communication system is demonstrated on two different tasks: bit error rate (BER) measurement and successful transmission rate (STR) comparison with Google Tone for various distances between the transmitter and the receiver. Consequently, the proposed method can operate without a bit error at a distance of 8 m under various noise conditions with sound pressure level of 80 dB. Moreover, the proposed method achieves higher STR than Google Tone on a task of URL transmission using two laptops. Kwang Myung Jeon, Hong Kook Kim, and Myung J. Lee Copyright © 2016 Kwang Myung Jeon et al. All rights reserved. Obstacle Aware Connectivity Restoration for Disjoint Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Mix of Stationary and Mobile Nodes Tue, 17 May 2016 10:48:27 +0000 In many applications, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are deployed in inhospitable environments and therefore the nodes are at increased risk of failure. Large scale damage may partition a network into disjoint segments, which has very negative effect on the application. Mobile nodes have been exploited to act as mobile data collectors (MDCs) among segments to restore the connectivity of WSNs in the previous works. However, almost all of the works assumed that mobile nodes travel via a direct path, which may not be the case in real-world applications. In order to improve the applicability of the recovery strategy, obstacles should be taken into account. In this paper, we present an obstacle aware connectivity restoration strategy (OACRS) to fit these requirements. Our algorithm is designed for the scenarios that the number of available relays is less than the number of relays required to construct stable links and more than the number of segments. At first we construct and optimize the obstacle-avoiding minimum spanning tree of the segments and then determine the relays which keep static and the ones which act as MDCs. Finally we optimize the tour path of MDCs. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated through simulation experiments. Guizhen Ma, Yang Yang, Xuesong Qiu, and Zhipeng Gao Copyright © 2016 Guizhen Ma et al. All rights reserved. Residual Energy-Based Strategies for the Transmission Probability and Duty-Cycle Selection in Wireless Sensor Networks Tue, 17 May 2016 09:26:12 +0000 WSNs are complex systems that are mainly limited by the battery life of the nodes in order to have an adequate performance. During the operation of the system, it is not uncommon to have a portion of nodes with low energy levels while other nodes have high energy levels. Nodes with very low residual energy must reduce their energy consumption since their operational lifetime is almost over. In this paper, we consider cluster-based WSNs for the event detection where there is a high concentration of high energy nodes and low concentration of low energy nodes. Building on this, we propose extending the battery life of low energy nodes in both the cluster formation and the steady-state phases. For the former, energy efficiency is achieved by means of assigning prioritized access to the shared channel to low energy nodes while delaying the contention access of high energy nodes which can support higher number of collisions before energy depletion. For the latter, we consider the duty-cycle of nodes where the sleep and active modes have dwelling times related to their residual energy levels. The system and the impact of the proposed residual energy-based mechanisms are mathematically evaluated using Markovian models. Carlos A. Guzmán-Medina, Mario E. Rivero-Angeles, and Izlian Y. Orea-Flores Copyright © 2016 Carlos A. Guzmán-Medina et al. All rights reserved. Environment Parameters Control Based on Wireless Sensor Network in Livestock Buildings Tue, 17 May 2016 06:51:38 +0000 The products quality and welfare of animals are closely related to the environment parameters in livestock buildings. A monitoring and control method of environment parameters in livestock buildings based on wireless sensor network is proposed in this paper. Temperature, humidity, light, carbon dioxide concentration, ammonia concentration, and hydrogen sulfide concentration can be monitored in real time by this method. The above six parameters will be adjusted and controlled through WLS algorithm and the minimizing deviation criteria. Compared with the traditional method, the high labor cost will be saved and energy consumption will be decreased. The experimental results show that this method can in real time monitor, effectively adjust, and control the environmental parameters in livestock buildings. Yu Zhang, Qiyu Chen, Guanting Liu, Weizheng Shen, and Guanlin Wang Copyright © 2016 Yu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Quantization for Robust Distributed Coding Mon, 16 May 2016 12:21:22 +0000 A distributed source coding approach is proposed for robust data communications in sensor networks. When sensor measurements are quantized, possible correlations between the measurements can be exploited to reduce the overall rate of communication required to report these measurements. Robust distributed source coding (RDSC) approaches differentiate themselves from other works in that the reconstruction error of all sources will not exceed a given upper bound, even if only a subset of the multiple descriptions of the distributed source code are received. We deal with practical aspects of RDSC in the context of scalar quantization of two correlated sources. As a benchmark to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, we derive theoretically achievable distortion-rate performances of an RDSC for two jointly Gaussian sources by applying known results on the classical multiple description source coding. Xiaolin Wu, Abdul Bais, and Nima Sarshar Copyright © 2016 Xiaolin Wu et al. All rights reserved. Effective and Reliable Malware Group Classification for a Massive Malware Environment Mon, 16 May 2016 12:10:21 +0000 Most of the cyber-attacks are caused by malware, and damage from them has escalated from cyber space to home appliances and infrastructure, thus affecting the daily living of the people. As such, anticipative analysis and countermeasures for malware have become more important. Most malware programs are created as variations of existing malware. This paper proposes a scheme for the detection and group classification of malware, some measures to improve the dependability of classification using the local clustering coefficient, and the technique for selecting and managing the leading malware for each group to classify them cost-effectively in a massive malware environment. This study also developed the system for the proposed model and compared its performance with the existing methods on actual malware to verify the level of dependability improvement. The technology developed in this study is expected to be used for the effective analysis of new malware, trend analysis of the same malware group, automatic identification of malware of interest, and same attacker trend analysis in addition to countermeasures for each malware program. Taejin Lee and Jin Kwak Copyright © 2016 Taejin Lee and Jin Kwak. All rights reserved. Internet of Things, Linked Data, and Citizen Participation as Enablers of Smarter Cities Mon, 16 May 2016 07:13:45 +0000 Diego López-de-Ipiña, Liming Chen, Antonio Jara, Erik Mannens, and Yingshu Li Copyright © 2016 Diego López-de-Ipiña et al. All rights reserved. Sports Motion Recognition Using MCMR Features Based on Interclass Symbolic Distance Sun, 15 May 2016 10:58:50 +0000 Human motion and gesture recognition receive much concern in sports field, such as physical education and fitness for all. Although plenty of mature applications appear in sports training using photography, video camera, or professional sensing devices, they are either expensive or inconvenient to carry. MEMS devices would be a wise choice for students and ordinary body builders as they are portable and have many built-in sensors. In fact, recognition of hand gestures is discussed in many studies using inertial sensors based on similarity matching. However, this kind of solution is not accurate enough for human movement recognition and cost much time. In this paper, we discuss motion recognition in sports training using features extracted from distance estimation of different kinds of sensors. To deal with the multivariate motion sequence, we propose a solution that applies Max-Correlation and Min-Redundancy strategy to select features extracted with interclass distance similarity estimation. With this method, we are able to screen out proper features that can distinguish motions in different classes effectively. According to the results of experiment in real world application in dance practice, our solution is quite effective with fair accuracy and low time cost. Yu Wei, Libin Jiao, Shenling Wang, Rongfang Bie, Yinfeng Chen, and Dalian Liu Copyright © 2016 Yu Wei et al. All rights reserved. An Advanced Auxiliary Delay-Weight Particle Filter with Linear Computation Cost Wed, 11 May 2016 12:08:27 +0000 We investigate the problem of tracking mobile targets in wireless sensor networks. We propose an advanced auxiliary delayed-weight particle filter algorithm (ADWPF). We make a deep study on the evolvement of particles and formally define the tree-like structure relationship among particles based on observations. Most importantly, we add some auxiliary particles to these structures formed by sampled particles in order to obtain more efficient structures. Based on the newly tree-like structures formed by auxiliary particles and sampled particles, we design a well efficient delayed-weight algorithm with linear computation cost. Experiment results demonstrate that our algorithm can greatly improve the tracking accuracy of a mobile target, compared with bootstrap filter, auxiliary particle filter, and another delayed-weight particle filter. Chen Li, Lin Sun, Zengwei Zheng, and Dan Chen Copyright © 2016 Chen Li et al. All rights reserved. Fine-Grained Support of Security Services for Resource Constrained Internet of Things Tue, 10 May 2016 09:51:19 +0000 Internet of Things (IoT) technologies allow everyday objects to be capable of connecting to the Internet, thereby making smart and convenient daily life. Although users’ daily lives can be convenient due to various smart services utilizing IoT, it can also be a target of attack through the Internet. Thus, security has now been recognized as mandatory technology to activate IoT based smart service. Several standard organizations related to IoT technologies recommend using the CoAP over DTLS protocol stacks for enabling secure communications between resource constrained things. In general DTLS, a cipher suite required to support specific security service should be negotiated between the CoAP client and server in the process of performing the DTLS handshake protocol. However, the handshake requires too much processing and transmission overhead in constrained IoT environment. To improve such an issue, this paper proposes a secure but efficient scheme for resource constrained things. The proposed scheme can selectively apply application data encryption or integrity to the DTLS record layer during an on-going secure session, thereby reducing the burden of DTLS handshake in resource constrained Internet of Things. Hyo Jin Ban, Jaeduck Choi, and Namhi Kang Copyright © 2016 Hyo Jin Ban et al. All rights reserved. Dynamical Spectrum Sharing and Medium Access Control for Heterogeneous Cognitive Radio Networks Mon, 09 May 2016 14:59:04 +0000 This paper tackles the issue of spectrum sharing and medium access control among heterogeneous secondary users. Two solutions are proposed in this paper. The first solution can be used in centralized fashion where a central entity exists which decides transmission power for all secondary users. This solution tries to minimize the time required by secondary users to clear their queues. The second solution assumes the autonomy of secondary users where the decision to update transmission power is distributed among users. Dynamical system approach is used to model system behavior. The trajectory of interference noise level suffered by secondary users is used to update transmission power at the beginning of each time frame based on the proposed dynamic power assignment rule. This rule couples the responses of all secondary users in a way which simplifies future interference noise forecasting. A forecasting engine based on deep neural network is proposed. This engine gives secondary users the ability to acquire useful knowledge from surrounding wireless environment. As a result, better transmission power allocation is achieved. Evaluation experiments have confirmed that adopting deep neural network can improve the performance by 46% on average. All of the proposed solutions have achieved an outstanding performance. Ahmed Mohamedou, Aduwati Sali, Borhanuddin Ali, and Mohamed Othman Copyright © 2016 Ahmed Mohamedou et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Sleep Scheduling Algorithm for Target Tracking in Double-Storage Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks Mon, 09 May 2016 08:34:02 +0000 Target tracking is a typical application in wireless sensor networks. Both energy efficiency and tracking performance are important issues that need to be considered. They are a pair of contradictions most of the time. Saving energy often sacrifices tracking performance, while enhancing tracking performance needs to consume more energy. In this paper, an efficient sleep scheduling algorithm is put forward to tackle the above problem in energy harvesting sensor networks. At first, we modify the probability-based prediction and sleep scheduling (PPSS) algorithm to track the target and further use another sleep scheduling algorithm we proposed to wake tracking nodes when the target is likely to be missed (i.e., it is unsuccessful to wake next-moment tracking nodes). Secondly, a double-storage energy harvesting architecture is employed to increase residual energy of sensor nodes and to extend network lifetime. Simulation results reveal that the proposed sleep scheduling algorithm can improve tracking performance and prolong network lifetime compared with the PPSS algorithm and the proposed algorithm without energy harvesting. Hongbin Chen, Qian Zeng, and Feng Zhao Copyright © 2016 Hongbin Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Multiple Target Localization with Sparse Information in Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 08 May 2016 12:47:38 +0000 It is a great challenge for wireless sensor network to provide enough information for targets localization due to the limits on application environment and its nature, such as energy, communication, and sensing precision. In this paper, a multiple targets localization algorithm with sparse information (MTLSI) was proposed using compressive sensing theory, which can provide targets position with incomplete or sparse localization information. It does not depend on extra hardware measurements. Only targets number detected by sensors is needed in the algorithm. The monitoring region was divided into a plurality of small grids. Sensors and targets are randomly dropped in grids. Targets position information is defined as a sparse vector; the number of targets detected by sensor nodes is expressed as the product of measurement matrix, sparse matrix, and sparse vector in compressive sensing theory. Targets are localized with the sparse signal reconstruction. In order to investigate MTLSI performance, BP and OMP are applied to recover targets localization. Simulation results show that MTLSI can provide satisfied targets localization in wireless sensor networks application with less data bits transmission compared to multiple targets localization using compressive sensing based on received signal strengths (MTLCS-RSS), which has the same computation complexity as MTLIS. Liping Liu, Shaoqing Yuan, Weijie Lv, and Qiang Zhang Copyright © 2016 Liping Liu et al. All rights reserved. Throughput and Delay Analysis of an Underwater CSMA/CA Protocol with Multi-RTS and Multi-DATA Receptions Sun, 08 May 2016 07:15:27 +0000 We propose an underwater CSMA/CA protocol with multi-RTS and multi-DATA receptions using the long underwater propagation delay. We analyze the throughput and delay of the proposed underwater CSMA/CA protocol through a ring-based underwater network modeling. The proposed protocol does not need to maintain the information of internode propagation delay for each pair of underwater nodes. In the proposed protocol, when there are simultaneous transmissions of RTS frames from different underwater sensors to an underwater sink as their back-off counters reach zero, the sink can recover some RTS frames which are not overlapped at the sink in the time domain due to the long underwater propagation delay. Then, the sink transmits CTS frame containing the DATA transmission order and the IDs of the sensors which transmitted the recovered RTS frames. Sensors which correspond to the IDs contained by the CTS frame can transmit DATA frame to the sink according to the DATA transmission order. We evaluate the throughput and delay performance of the proposed protocol with varying the number of sensors and the contention window size compared to the conventional protocols. The analytical results agree with the simulation results well for the proposed protocol with various numbers of sensors and contention window sizes. The analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol outperforms the conventional protocols. Ho Young Hwang and Ho-Shin Cho Copyright © 2016 Ho Young Hwang and Ho-Shin Cho. All rights reserved. Fast and Energy Efficient Multihop D2D Routing Scheme Wed, 04 May 2016 09:44:21 +0000 Device-to-device (D2D) communications are expected to offload cellular networks and enhance public safety. In addition to the capability of direct communication between devices, the capability of delivering data over multihops in an ad hoc manner by autonomous decision of each device is highly desired to expand application areas of D2D communications. To address this issue, we propose a fast and energy efficient D2D multihop routing method using the geographic locations of nodes. To expedite data delivery while saving transmission powers of nodes, we devise the next hop selection method considering the congestion levels of potential next hops. In addition, we devise a detour scheme to move around a routing hole that is encountered when a node cannot find a neighbor that is closer to the destination of a packet than itself. We also propose management procedures so that each node acquires the locations of destinations and its neighboring nodes. Through extensive simulations, we validate the proposed method by comparing the performance of the proposed method with those of maximum progress method (MaxP), cost over progress method (CoP), and congestion-aware forwarder selection method (CAFS). Even though the number of hops obtained by the proposed method is larger than those obtained by MaxP and CAFS, our method is superior to them in terms of the probability of successfully delivering packets to destinations and total amount of energy consumption. We also show that our method can reduce end-to-end delay considerably compared with CoP. Jaesung Park Copyright © 2016 Jaesung Park. All rights reserved.