About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 351385, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/351385
Review Article

Role of Vitamin D in Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity for Glucose Homeostasis

1Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Children's Hospital, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35233, USA

Received 20 April 2009; Accepted 16 June 2009

Academic Editor: Vin Tangpricha

Copyright © 2010 Jessica A. Alvarez and Ambika Ashraf. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. P. Heaney, “Functional indices of vitamin D status and ramifications of vitamin D deficiency,” The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1706S–1709S, 2004.
  2. M. F. Holick, “Medical progress: vitamin D deficiency,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 3, pp. 266–281, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  3. R. Scragg, I. Holdaway, V. Singh, P. Metcalf, J. Baker, and E. Dryson, “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels decreased in impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 181–188, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. K. C. R. Baynes, B. J. Boucher, E. J. M. Feskens, and D. Kromhout, “Vitamin D, glucose tolerance anal insulinaemia in elderly men,” Diabetologia, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 344–347, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. R. Scragg, M. Sowers, and C. Bell, “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2813–2818, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. Saintonge, H. Bang, and L. M. Gerber, “Implications of a new definition of vitamin D deficiency in a multiracial US adolescent population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III,” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 797–803, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. F. L. Brancati, W. H. L. Kao, A. R. Folsom, R. L. Watson, and M. Szklo, “Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American and white adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 283, no. 17, pp. 2253–2259, 2000.
  8. C. J. de Souza and A. H. Meier, “Circadian and seasonal variations of plasma insulin and cortisol concentrations in the Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus,” Chronobiology International, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 141–151, 1987.
  9. A. G. Pittas, J. Lau, F. B. Hu, and B. Dawson-Hughes, “The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 2017–2029, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. E. Hypponen, E. Laara, A. Reunanen, M.-R. Jarvelin, and S. M. Virtanen, “Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9292, pp. 1500–1503, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. M. Prentki and C. J. Nolan, “Islet β cell failure in type 2 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1802–1812, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  12. J. A. Johnson, J. P. Grande, P. C. Roche, and R. Kumar, “Immunohistochemical localization of the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor and calbindin D28k in human and rat pancreas,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 267, no. 3, part 1, pp. E356–E360, 1994.
  13. R. Bland, D. Markovic, C. E. Hills, et al., “Expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1α-hydroxylase in pancreatic islets,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 89-90, pp. 121–125, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  14. B. Maestro, N. Davila, M.C. Carranza, and C. Calle, “Identification of a Vitamin D response element in the human insulin receptor gene promoter,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 84, no. 2-3, pp. 223–230, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. R. U. Simpson, G. A. Thomas, and A. J. Arnold, “Identification of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors and activities in muscle,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 260, no. 15, pp. 8882–8891, 1985.
  16. B. Maestro, S. Molero, S. Bajo, N. Dávila, and C. Calle, “Transcriptional activation of the human insulin receptor gene by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3,” Cell Biochemistry and Function, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 227–232, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  17. T. W. Dunlop, S. Väisänen, C. Frank, F. Molnár, L. Sinkkonen, C. Carlberg, and J. Karn, “The human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ gene is a primary target of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its nuclear receptor,” Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 349, no. 2, pp. 248–260, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. B. Maestro, J. Campion, N. Davila, and C. Calle, “Stimulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of insulin receptor expression and insulin responsiveness for glucose transport in U-937 human promonocytic cells,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 383–391, 2000.
  19. C. Cade and A. W. Norman, “Vitamin D3 improves impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the vitamin D-deficient rat in vivo,” Endocrinology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 84–90, 1986.
  20. A. W. Norman, B. J. Frankel, A. M. Heldt, and G. M. Grodsky, “Vitamin D deficiency inhibits pancreatic secretion of insulin,” Science, vol. 209, no. 4458, pp. 823–825, 1980.
  21. S. A. Clark, W. E. Stumpf, and M. Sar, “Effect of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on insulin secretion,” Diabetes, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 382–386, 1981.
  22. B. L. Nyomba, R. Bouillon, and P. De Moor, “Influence of vitamin D status on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in the rabbit,” Endocrinology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 191–197, 1984.
  23. U. Zeitz, K. Weber, D. W. Soegiarto, E. Wolf, R. Balling, and R. G. Erben, “Impaired insulin secretory capacity in mice lacking a functional vitamin D receptor,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 509–511, 2003.
  24. P.-M. Bourlon, B. Billaudel, and A. Faure-Dussert, “Influence of vitamin D3 deficiency and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 on de novo insulin biosynthesis in the islets of the rat endocrine pancreas,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. Q. G. Zhou, F. F. Hou, Z. J. Guo, M. Liang, G. B. Wang, and X. Zhang, “1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D improved the free fatty-acid-induced insulin resistance in cultured C2C12 cells,” Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 459–464, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. H. A. Bischoff, M. Borchers, F. Gudat, et al., “In situ detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in human skeletal muscle tissue,” Histochemical Journal, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. A. W. Norman, “Minireview: vitamin D receptor: new assignments for an already busy receptor,” Endocrinology, vol. 147, no. 12, pp. 5542–5548, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  28. J. Li, M. E. Byrne, E. Chang, et al., “1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase in adipocytes,” Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 112, no. 1–3, pp. 122–126, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari, M. Borchers, F. Gudat, U. Durmuller, H. B. Stahelin, and W. Dick, “Vitamin D receptor expression in human muscle tissue decreases with age,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 265–269, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  30. B. Draznin, “Cytosolic calcium and insulin resistance,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 32–38, 1993.
  31. J. E.-B. Reusch, N. Begum, K. E. Sussman, and B. Draznin, “Regulation of GLUT-4 phosphorylation by intracellular calcium in adipocytes,” Endocrinology, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 3269–3273, 1991.
  32. D. S. Worrall and J. M. Olefsky, “The effects of intracellular calcium depletion on insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 378–389, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. C. B. Wollheim and G. W. Sharp, “Regulation of insulin release by calcium,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 914–973, 1981.
  34. A. Bjorklund, A. Lansner, and V. E. Grill, “Glucose-induced [Ca2+](i) abnormalities in human pancreatic islets: important role of overstimulation,” Diabetes, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1840–1848, 2000.
  35. M. B. Zemel, “Nutritional and endocrine modulation of intracellular calcium: implications in obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 188, no. 1-2, pp. 129–136, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. H. G. Munshi, D. J. Burks, J. L. Joyal, M. F. White, and D. B. Sacks, “Ca2+ regulates calmodulin binding to IQ motifs in IRS-1,” Biochemistry, vol. 35, no. 49, pp. 15883–15889, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. Z. Li, J. L. Joyal, and D. B. Sacks, “Binding of IRS proteins to calmodulin is enhanced in insulin resistance,” Biochemistry, vol. 39, no. 17, pp. 5089–5096, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. M. F. McCarty and C. A. Thomas, “PTH excess may promote weight gain by impeding catecholamine-induced lipolysis-implications for the impact of calcium, vitamin D, and alcohol on body weight,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 61, no. 5-6, pp. 535–542, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. K. C. Chiu, L.-M. Chuang, N. P. Lee, et al., “Insulin sensitivity is inversely correlated with plasma intact parathyroid hormone level,” Metabolism, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1501–1505, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  40. E. Kamycheva, R. Jorde, Y. Figenschau, and E. Haug, “Insulin sensitivity in subjects with secondary hyperparathyroidism and the effect of a low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level on insulin sensitivity,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 126–132, 2007.
  41. B. J. Boucher, N. Mannan, K. Noonan, C. N. Hales, and S. J. W. Evans, “Glucose intolerance and impairment of insulin secretion in relation to vitamin D deficiency in East London Asians,” Diabetologia, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1239–1245, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. E. Orwoll, M. Riddle, and M. Prince, “Effects of vitamin D on insulin and glucagon secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1083–1087, 1994.
  43. K. C. Chiu, A. Chu, V. L. W. Go, and M. F. Saad, “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 820–825, 2004.
  44. G. M. Reaven, “Role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1595–1607, 1988.
  45. M. Chonchol and R. Scragg, “25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin resistance, and kidney function in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Kidney International, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 134–139, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. A.-T. McGill, J. M. Stewart, F. E. Lithander, C. M. Strik, and S. D. Poppitt, “Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity,” Nutrition Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. M. H. Gannage-Yared, R. Chedid, S. Khalife, E. Azzi, F. Zoghbi, and G. Halaby, “Vitamin D in relation to metabolic risk factors, insulin sensitivity and adiponectin in a young Middle-Eastern population,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 965–971, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  48. L. Lu, Z. Yu, A. Pan, et al., “Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1278–1283, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. R. J. Clifton-Bligh, P. McElduff, and A. McElduff, “Maternal vitamin D deficiency, ethnicity and gestational diabetes,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 678–684, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  50. R. Alemzadeh, J. Kichler, G. Babar, and M. Calhoun, “Hypovitaminosis D in obese children and adolescents: relationship with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, ethnicity, and season,” Metabolism, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 183–191, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. L. Lind, A. Hanni, H. Lithell, A. Hvarfner, O. H. Sorensen, and S. Ljunghall, “Vitamin D is related to blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged men,” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 894–901, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. L. Lind, T. Pollare, A. Hvarfner, H. Lithell, O. H. Sorensen, and S. Ljunghall, “Long-term treatment with active vitamin D (alphacalcidol) in middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance. Effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity, glucose tolerance and blood pressure,” Diabetes Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 141–147, 1989.
  53. E. S. Ford, U. A. Ajani, L. C. McGuire, and S. Liu, “Concentrations of serum vitamin D and the metabolic syndrome among U.S. adults,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1228–1230, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. S. H. Kim, F. Abbasi, and G. M. Reaven, “Impact of degree of obesity on surrogate estimates of insulin resistance,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1998–2002, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. J. P. Reis, D. von Muhlen, D. Kritz-Silverstein, D. L. Wingard, and E. Barrett-Connor, “Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone levels, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling older adults,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1549–1555, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  56. K. McKinney, C. R. Breitkopf, and A. B. Berenson, “Association of race, body fat and season with vitamin D status among young women: a cross-sectional study,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 535–541, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. M. B. Snijder, R. M. van Dam, M. Visser, et al., “Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 4119–4123, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. S. Arunabh, S. Pollack, J. Yeh, and J. F. Aloia, “Body fat content and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in healthy women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 157–161, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. M. Manco, M. Calvani, G. Nanni, et al., “Low 25-hydroxyvitamin d does not affect insulin sensitivity in obesity after bariatric surgery,” Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 1692–1700, 2005.
  60. C. Mattila, P. Knekt, S. Mannisto, et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 2569–2570, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. N. G. Forouhi, J. Luan, A. Cooper, B. J. Boucher, and N. J. Wareham, “Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance the medical research council ely prospective study 1990–2000,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 2619–2625, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  62. P. Knekt, M. Laaksonen, C. Mattila, et al., “Serum vitamin D and subsequent occurrence of type 2 diabetes,” Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 666–671, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  63. A. G. Need, P. D. O'Loughlin, M. Horowitz, and B. E. C. Nordin, “Relationship between fasting serum glucose, age, body mass index and serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D in postmenopausal women,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 738–741, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  64. E. Hypponen, B. J. Boucher, D. J. Berry, and C. Power, “25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age: a cross-sectional study in the 1958 British Birth Cohort,” Diabetes, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 298–305, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  65. O. Gedik and S. Akalin, “Effects of vitamin D deficiency and repletion on insulin and glucagon secretion in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 142–145, 1986.
  66. A.-M. Borissova, T. Tankova, G. Kirilov, L. Dakovska, and R. Kovacheva, “The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 258–261, 2003.
  67. S. Inomata, S. Kadowaki, and T. Yamatani, “Effect of 1α(OH)-vitamin D3 on insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus,” Bone and Mineral, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 187–192, 1986.
  68. I. Zofkova and P. Stolba, “Effect of calcitriol and trifluoperazine on glucose stimulated B cell function in healthy humans,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 185–191, 1990.
  69. R. Jorde and Y. Figenschau, “Supplementation with cholecalciferol does not improve glycaemic control in diabetic subjects with normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels,” European Journal of Nutrition, pp. 1–6, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  70. J. Nagpal, J. N. Pande, and A. Bhartia, “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  71. I. H. de Boer, L. F. Tinker, S. Connelly, et al., “Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of incident diabetes in the women's health initiative,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 701–707, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. L. Nilas and C. Christiansen, “Treatment with vitamin D or its analogues does not change body weight or blood glucose level in postmenopausal women,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 407–411, 1984.
  73. A. G. Pittas, S. S. Harris, P. C. Stark, and B. Dawson-Hughes, “The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 980–986, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  74. K. Tai, A. G. Need, M. Horowitz, and I. M. Chapman, “Glucose tolerance and vitamin D: effects of treating vitamin D deficiency,” Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 950–956, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  75. B. L. Nyomba, J. Auwerx, and V. Bormans, “Pancreatic secretion in man with subclinical vitamin D deficiency,” Diabetologia, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 1986.
  76. S. Ljunghall, L. Lind, H. Lithell, et al., “Treatment with one-alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol in middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance. A prospective randomized double-blind study,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 222, no. 4, pp. 361–367, 1987.
  77. D. Fliser, A. Stefanski, E. Franek, P. Fode, A. Gudarzi, and E. Ritz, “No effect of calcitriol on insulin-mediated glucose uptake in healthy subjects,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 629–633, 1997.
  78. G. Speer, K. Cseh, G. Winkler, et al., “Vitamin D and estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus and in android type obesity,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 385–389, 2001.
  79. G. A. Hitman, N. Mannan, M. F. McDermott, et al., “Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms influence insulin secretion in Bangladeshi Asians,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 688–690, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. B.-W. Ogunkolade, B. J. Boucher, J. M. Prahl, et al., “Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA and VDR protein levels in relation to vitamin D status, insulin secretory capacity, and VDR genotype in Bangladeshi Asians,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 2294–2300, 2002.
  81. A. Filus, A. Trzmiel, J. Kuliczkowska-Płaksej, et al., “Relationship between vitamin D receptor BsmI and FokI polymorphisms and anthropometric and biochemical parameters describing metabolic syndrome,” Aging Male, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 134–139, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  82. K. C. Chiu, L.-M. Chuang, and C. Yoon, “The vitamin D receptor polymorphism in the translation initiation codon is a risk factor for insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians,” BMC Medical Genetics, vol. 2, article 2, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  83. J.-Y. Oh and E. Barrett-Connor, “Association between vitamin D receptor polymorphism and type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study,” Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 356–359, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. J. R. Ortlepp, J. Metrikat, M. Albrecht, A. von Korff, P. Hanrath, and R. Hoffmann, “The vitamin D receptor gene variant and physical activity predicts fasting glucose levels in healthy young men,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 451–454, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. U. Tworowska-Bardzinska, F. Lwow, E. Kubicka, et al., “The vitamin D receptor gene BsmI polymorphism is not associated with anthropometric and biochemical parameters describing metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women,” Gynecological Endocrinology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 514–518, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  86. F. Dilmec, E. Uzer, F. Akkafa, E. Kose, and A. B. van Kuilenburg, “Detection of VDR gene ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using PCR-RFLP method in a Turkish population,” Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  87. M. T. Malecki, J. Frey, D. Moczulski, T. Klupa, E. Kozek, and J. Sieradzki, “Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Polish population,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 111, no. 8, pp. 505–509, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  88. W.-Z. Ye, A. F. Reis, D. Dubois-Laforgue, C. Bellanne-Chantelot, J. Timsit, and G. Velho, “Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity in type 2 diabetic subjects with early age of onset,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 181–186, 2001.
  89. S. Boullu-Sanchis, F. Lepretre, G. Hedelin, et al., “Type 2 diabetes mellitus: association study of five candidate genes in an Indian population of Guadeloupe, genetic contribution of FABP2 polymorphism,” Diabetes and Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 150–156, 1999.
  90. M. F. Holick, “Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 362–371, 2004.
  91. A. S. Dusso, A. J. Brown, and E. Slatopolsky, “Vitamin D,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 289, no. 1, pp. F8–F28, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  92. A. I. Gunal, H. Celiker, H. Celebi, B. Ustundag, and S. Y. Gunal, “Intravenous alfacalcidol improves insulin resistance in hemodialysis patients,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 109–113, 1997.
  93. A. Kautzky-Willer, G. Pacini, U. Barnas, et al., “Intravenous calcitriol normalizes insulin sensitivity in uremic patients,” Kidney International, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 200–206, 1995.
  94. K. J. Pepper, S. E. Judd, M. S. Nanes, and V. Tangpricha, “Evaluation of vitamin d repletion regimens to correct vitamin d status in adults,” Endocrine Practice, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 95–103, 2009.
  95. J. M. Gómez, “The role of insulin-like growth factor I components in the regulation of vitamin D,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 125–132, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. T. Bianda, Y. Glatz, R. Bouillon, E. R. Froesch, and C. Schmid, “Effects of short-term insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or growth hormone (GH) treatment on bone metabolism and on production of 1,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol in GH-deficient adults,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 81–87, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar