- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 157940, 8 pages
Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Shanghai Municipal Key Laboratory on Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Diabetes Institute, and Shanghai Municipal Clinical Center on Diabetes, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai 200233, China
Received 6 March 2012; Accepted 7 May 2012
Academic Editor: Anil K. Agarwal
Copyright © 2012 Bin-Bin He et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. Khandekar and A. J. Mohammed, “Visual disabilities among diabetics in Oman,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 836–841, 2005.
- E. M. Kohner, S. J. Aldington, I. M. Stratton et al., “United kingdom prospective diabetes study, 30: diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 297–303, 1998.
- R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. E. Moss, and K. J. Cruickshanks, “The wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy: XVII. The 14- year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy and associated risk factors in type 1 diabetes,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 10, pp. 1801–1815, 1998.
- I. M. Stratton, E. M. Kohner, S. J. Aldington et al., “UKPDS 50: risk factors for incidence and progression of retinopathy in Type II diabetes over 6 years from diagnosis,” Diabetologia, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 156–163, 2001.
- I. M. Stratton, A. I. Adler, H. A. W. Neil et al., “Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7258, pp. 405–412, 2000.
- R. J. Tapp, J. E. Shaw, C. A. Harper et al., “The prevalence of and factors associated with diabetic retinopathy in the Australian population,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1731–1737, 2003.
- M. D. Davis, M. R. Fisher, R. E. Gangnon et al., “Risk factors for high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy and severe visual loss: early treatment diabetic retinopathy study report 18,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 233–252, 1998.
- G. K. Dowse, A. R. G. Humphrey, V. R. Collins et al., “Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in the multiethnic population of Mauritius,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 147, no. 5, pp. 448–457, 1998.
- M. I. Harris, R. Klein, C. C. Cowie, M. Rowland, and D. D. Byrd-Holt, “Is the risk of diabetic retinopathy greater in non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites with type 2 diabetes? A U.S. population study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1230–1235, 1998.
- M. R. Manaviat, M. Afkhami, and M. R. Shoja, “Retinopathy and microalbuminuria in type II diabetic patients,” BMC Ophthalmology, vol. 4, article no. 9, pp. 1–4, 2004.
- J. I. Cleeman, “Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2486–2497, 2001.
- C. P. Wilkinson, F. L. Ferris, R. E. Klein et al., “Proposed international clinical diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema disease severity scales,” Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 1677–1682, 2003.
- M. Bamashmus, A. Gunaid, and R. Khandekar, “Diabetic retinopathy, visual impairment and ocular status among patients with diabetes mellitus in Yemen: a hospital-based study,” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 293–298, 2009.
- P. K. Rani, R. Raman, A. Chandrakantan, S. S. Pal, G. M. Perumal, and T. Sharma, “Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in self-reported rural population with diabetes,” Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 92–96, 2009.
- R. Pradeepa, B. Anitha, V. Mohan, A. Ganesan, and M. Rema, “Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in a South Indian type 2 diabetic population—the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) eye study 4,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 536–542, 2008.
- J. Esteves, C. M. da Rosa, C. K. Kramer, L. E. Osowski, S. Milano, and L. H. Canani, “Absence of diabetic retinopathy in a patient who has had diabetes mellitus for 69 years, and inadequate glycemic control: case presentation,” Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 13, 2009.
- R. Klein, B. E. K. Klein, S. E. Moss, and K. J. Cruickshanks, “The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy: XIV. Ten-year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1217–1228, 1994.
- R. Turner, “Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34),” Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9131, pp. 854–865, 1998.
- H. C. Looker, J. Krakoff, W. C. Knowler, P. H. Bennett, R. Klein, and R. L. Hanson, “Longitudinal studies of incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy assessed by retinal photography in Pima Indians,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 320–326, 2003.
- L. M. Molyneaux, M. I. Constantino, M. McGill, R. Zilkens, and D. K. Yue, “Better glycaemic control and risk reduction of diabetic complications in type 2 diabetes: comparison with the DCCT,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 77–83, 1998.
- G. Fuchsjäger-Mayrl, K. Polak, A. Luksch et al., “Retinal blood flow and systemic blood pressure in healthy young subjects,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 239, no. 9, pp. 673–677, 2001.
- I. Suzuma, Y. Hata, A. Clermont et al., “Cyclic stretch and hypertension induce retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: potential mechanisms for exacerbation of diabetic retinopathy by hypertension,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 444–454, 2001.
- W. Zheng, “Factor analysis of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese patients,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 244–252, 2011.
- F. L. Ferris, E. Y. Chew, and B. J. Hoogwerf, “Serum lipids and diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1291–1293, 1996.
- B. E. K. Klein, S. E. Moss, R. Klein, and T. S. Surawicz, “The Wisconsin epidemiologic study of diabetic retinopathy XIII. Relationship of serum cholesterol to retinopathy and hard exudate,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, no. 8, pp. 1261–1265, 1991.
- E. Y. Chew, W. T. Ambrosius, M. D. Davis et al., “Effects of medical therapies on retinopathy progression in type 2 diabetes,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 3, pp. 233–244, 2010.
- A. Keech, P. Mitchell, P. Summanen et al., “Effect of fenofibrate on the need for laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy (FIELD study): a randomised controlled trial,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9600, pp. 1687–1697, 2007.
- A. Girach and L. Vignati, “Diabetic microvascular complications-can the presence of one predict the development of another?” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 228–237, 2006.
- M. C. Boelter, J. L. Gross, L. H. Canani et al., “Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is associated with microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 1033–1039, 2006.
- C. E. Hills and N. J. Brunskill, “Cellular and physiological effects of C-peptide,” Clinical Science, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 565–574, 2009.
- B. Wilhelm, P. Kann, and A. Pfützner, “Influence of C-peptide on glucose utilisation,” Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 2008, Article ID 769483, 3 pages, 2008.
- J. Johansson, K. Ekberg, J. Shafqat et al., “Molecular effects of proinsulin C-peptide,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 295, no. 5, pp. 1035–1040, 2002.
- C. E. Hills, N. J. Brunskill, and P. E. Squires, “C-peptide as a therapeutic tool in diabetic nephropathy,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 389–397, 2010.
- R. S. Mughal, J. L. Scragg, P. Lister et al., “Cellular mechanisms by which proinsulin C-peptide prevents insulin-induced neointima formation in human saphenous vein,” Diabetologia, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1761–1771, 2010.
- J. Wahren, K. Ekberg, J. Johansson et al., “Role of C-peptide in human physiology,” American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 278, no. 5, pp. E759–E768, 2000.
- M. A. Cotter, K. Ekberg, J. Wahren, and N. E. Cameron, “Effects of proinsulin C-peptide in experimental diabetic neuropathy: vascular actions and modulation by nitric oxide synthase inhibition,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 1812–1817, 2003.
- P. Luppi, V. Cifarelli, H. Tse, J. Piganelli, and M. Trucco, “Human C-peptide antagonises high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction through the nuclear factor-κB pathway,” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1534–1543, 2008.
- S. Chakrabarti, Z. Ali Khan, M. Cukiernik, and W. Zhang, “C-peptide and retinal microangiopathy in diabetes,” Experimental Diabesity Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 91–96, 2004.
- R. Kawamoto, H. Tomita, Y. Oka, and N. Ohtsuka, “Association between risk factors and carotid enlargement,” Internal Medicine, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 503–509, 2006.
- R. Klein, A. R. Sharrett, B. E. K. Klein et al., “The association of atherosclerosis, vascular risk factors, and retinopathy in adults with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 1225–1234, 2002.
- A. I. Adler, I. M. Stratton, H. A. W. Neil et al., “Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 321, no. 7258, pp. 412–419, 2000.
- Q. Qiao, S. Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, and E. Läärä, “The relationship between hemoglobin levels and diabetic retinopathy,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 153–158, 1997.
- P. K. Rani, R. Raman, S. R. Rachepalli et al., “Anemia and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 91–94, 2010.
- V. Ajoy Mohan, S. Nithyanandam, and J. Idiculla, “Microalbuminuria and low hemoglobin as risk factors for the occurrence and increasing severity of diabetic retinopathy,” Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 207–210, 2011.
- R. Singh, V. Gupta, A. Gupta, and A. Bhansali, “Spontaneous closure of microaneurysms in diabetic retinopathy with treatment of co-existing anaemia,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 248–249, 2005.
- K. J. Craig, J. D. Williams, S. G. Riley et al., “Anemia and diabetes in the absence of nephropathy,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1118–1123, 2005.
- M. C. Thomas, R. J. MacIsaac, C. Tsalamandris et al., “Anemia in patients with Type 1 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 4359–4363, 2004.
- M. C. Thomas, R. J. MacIsaac, C. Tsalamandris, D. Power, and G. Jerums, “Unrecognized anemia in patients with diabetes: a cross-sectional survey,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1164–1169, 2003.
- S. Thomas and M. Rampersad, “Anaemia in diabetes,” Acta Diabetologica, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. S13–S17, 2004.
- M. Cusick, E. Y. Chew, B. Hoogwerf et al., “Risk factors for renal replacement therapy in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Report No. 26,” Kidney International, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 1173–1179, 2004.