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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 296017, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/296017
Research Article

Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates versus All Types of Carbohydrates for Treating Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Randomized Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Effect of Glycemic Control

1Nutrition Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, Montes Urales 800, Lomas de Virreyes, 11000 Mexico City, Mexico
2Endocrinology Department, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, Montes Urales 800, Lomas de Virreyes, 11000 Mexico City, Mexico
3Unidad de Vinculación, Facultad de Medicina, UNAM, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genomica, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 12 April 2012; Revised 16 October 2012; Accepted 17 October 2012

Academic Editor: Anil K. Agarwal

Copyright © 2012 Otilia Perichart-Perera et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn’s nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women ( , ≤29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.