Table 2: Genetically engineered islets for transplantation therapy.

Vector typeGene carried by vectorEffect on islet transplantationReference

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticlessiRNA to caspase 3Decrease cell apoptosis in recipients[54]
AdenovirusX-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP)Increase successful rate of islet transplantation and reduce cell apoptosis in a syngeneic model[55]
Gene gun transfectionCTLA-4-IgProlong islet grafts’ survival in an allogeneic model[45]
Adenovirus/lentivirusCTLA-4-Ig or TGF-βProlong islet grafts’ survival in a xenogenetic model (rat to mouse)[46]
Transfection by LipofectinIndoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO)Prolong islet grafts’ survival in an allogeneic model[56]
AdenovirusTGF-βProlong islet grafts’ survival in diabetic NOD mice[51]
Adeno-associated virusIL-10Prolong islet grafts’ survival in diabetic NOD mice[52]
AdenovirusIL-10Combine with cyclosporin A, prolong islet grafts survival in an allogeneic model[57]
AdenovirusBcl-2Prolong islet grafts’ survival and maintain functional islet mass in STZ-induced diabetic mice in a xenogenetic model (nonhuman primate to mouse) [47]
AdenovirusManganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)Prolong islet grafts’ survival in STZ-induced diabetic NOD/SCID mice after challenge with diabetogenic splenocytes[49]
LentivirusThioredoxinProlong islet grafts’ survival in diabetic NOD mice[48]
LentivirusGalectin-9Prolong islet grafts’ survival in STZ-induced diabetic NOD/SCID mice after challenge with diabetogenic splenocytesChou et al., manuscript in preparation