Table 1: Hormones, growth factors, and other factors regulating beta-cell mass.

InhibitorsStimulators

MetabolitesGlucose, FFAGlucose, FFA, amino acids
CytokinesIL-1, IFN-g, TNF-a, leptinGH, PRL, PL
Growth factor familyHGFIGF-I, IGF-II, insulin, TGF-a, betacellulin, HB-EGF, aFGF, VEGF, PDGF, HGF
Placental hormonesplacental lactogen, prolactin
Glucagon familyGLP-1, GIP, glucagon
Somatostatin familySomatostatin
CGRP familyIAPP/amylin
Gastrin familyGastrin, CCK
TGF-b familyTGF-b, follistatinActivin A
NeurotrophinsNGF, NT-3
Neurotransmitters(Nor)epinephrineAcetylcholine
LectinsReg/INGAP/PSP/PTP
Adhesion moleculesIntegrin a6b1, Cx43, Cx36
DrugsDiazoxideNicotinamide, SU
ToxinsStreptozotocin, alloxan

Modified from Nielsen et al. [29]. aFGF, acidic fibroblast growth factor; CCK, cholecystokinin; Cx. Connexin; HB-EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like protein; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor; IAPP, islet amyloid polypeptide; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; INGAP, islet neogenesis- associated peptide; NGF, nerve growth factor; NT-3, neurotrophin-3; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PSP, pancreatic stone protein; PTP, pancreatic thread protein; SU, sulfonylurea; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.