About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 902873, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/902873
Review Article

Type II Diabetes Mellitus in Arabic-Speaking Countries

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3

Received 12 March 2012; Accepted 28 May 2012

Academic Editor: Maria L. Dufau

Copyright © 2012 Mohammad Badran and Ismail Laher. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. World Health organization Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance, “Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications,” WHO, 1999,. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1999/WHO_NCD_NCS_99.2.pdf.
  3. International Diabetes Federation, IDF Diabetes Atlas, International Diabetes Federation, Brussels, Belgium, 5th edition, 2011, http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas.
  4. G. Roglic and N. Unwin, “Mortality attributable to diabetes: estimates for the year 2010,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 15–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Alhyas, A. McKay, A. Balasanthiran, and A. Majeed, “Prevalences of overweight, obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in the Gulf: systematic review,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 2, p. 55, 2011.
  6. World heath Organization, “Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia,” WHO, 2006, http://www.who.int/diabetes/publications/Definition%20and%20diagnosis%20of%20diabetes_new.pdf.
  7. “Summary of revisions for the 2010 clinical practice recommendations,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, 1, no. S3, 2010.
  8. P. L. Santaguida, C. Balion, D. Hunt et al., “Diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose,” Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, no. 128, pp. 1–11, 2005. View at Scopus
  9. K. G. M. M. Alberti, P. Zimmet, and J. Shaw, “International Diabetes Federation: a consensus on Type 2 diabetes prevention,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 451–463, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. A. Antonetti, A. J. Barber, S. K. Bronson et al., “Diabetic retinopathy: seeing beyond glucose-induced microvascular disease,” Diabetes, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 2401–2411, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. L. Caramori and M. Mauer, “Diabetes and nephropathy,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 273–282, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. E. Resnick, K. B. Stansberry, T. B. Harris et al., “Diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and old age disability,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. J. M. Feskens and D. Kromhout, “Glucose tolerance and the risk of cardiovascular diseases: the Zutphen study,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1327–1334, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. B. Newman, D. S. Siscovick, T. A. Manolio et al., “Ankle-arm index as a marker of atherosclerosis in the cardiovascular health study,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 837–845, 1993. View at Scopus
  15. A. Himmelmann, L. Hansson, A. Svensson, P. Harmsen, C. Holmgren, and A. Svanborg, “Predictors of stroke in the elderly,” Acta Medica Scandinavica, vol. 224, no. 5, pp. 439–443, 1988. View at Scopus
  16. A. R. Folsom, M. L. Rasmussen, L. E. Chambless et al., “Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1077–1083, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Jamrozik, R. J. Broadhurst, S. Forbes, G. J. Hankey, and C. S. Anderson, “Predictors of death and vascular events in the elderly: the Perth community stroke study,” Stroke, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 863–868, 2000. View at Scopus
  18. J. A. Luchsinger, M. X. Tang, Y. Stern, S. Shea, and R. Mayeux, “Diabetes mellitus and risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia with stroke in a multiethnic cohort,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 154, no. 7, pp. 635–641, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. A. Suzuki, M. Poot, R. G. Gerrity, and K. E. Bornfeldt, “Diabetes accelerates smooth muscle accumulation in lesions of atherosclerosis: lack of direct growth-promoting effects of high glucose levels,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 851–860, 2001. View at Scopus
  20. A. I. Vinik, T. Erbas, T. Sun Park, R. Nolan, and G. L. Pittenger, “Platelet dysfunction in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1476–1485, 2001. View at Scopus
  21. S. B. Williams, J. A. Cusco, M. A. Roddy, M. T. Johnstone, and M. A. Creager, “Impaired nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 567–574, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Badran and I. Laher, “Obesity in arabic-speaking countries,” Journal of Obesity, vol. 2011, Article ID 686430, 9 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. G. A. Bray, “Definition, measurement, and classification of the syndromes of obesity,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 99–112, 1978. View at Scopus
  24. N. T. Nguyen, C. P. Magno, K. T. Lane, M. W. Hinojosa, and J. S. Lane, “Association of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome with obesity. Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 207, no. 6, pp. 928–934, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Sjöström, A. K. Lindroos, M. Peltonen et al., “Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 26, pp. 2683–2693, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. M. Chan, E. B. Rimm, G. A. Colditz, M. J. Stampfer, and W. C. Willett, “Obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain as risk factors for clinical diabetes in men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 961–969, 1994. View at Scopus
  27. G. A. Colditz, W. C. Willett, A. Rotnitzky, and J. E. Manson, “Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 481–486, 1995. View at Scopus
  28. N. Freemantle, J. Holmes, A. Hockey, and S. Kumar, “How strong is the association between abdominal obesity and the incidence of type 2 diabetes?” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 62, no. 9, pp. 1391–1396, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. M. Al-Sendi, P. Shetty, and A. O. Musaiger, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Bahraini adolescents: a comparison between three different sets of criteria,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 471–474, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Bener, “Prevalence of obesity, overweight, and underweight in Qatari adolescents,” Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 39–45, 2006. View at Scopus
  31. M. Malik and A. Bakir, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in the United Arab Emirates,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 15–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Nasreddine, A. Mehio-Sibai, M. Mrayati, N. Adra, and N. Hwalla, “Adolescent obesity in Syria: prevalence and associated factors,” Child, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 404–413, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. M. Sibai, N. Hwalla, N. Adra, and B. Rahal, “Prevalence and covariates of obesity in Lebanon: findings from the first epidemiological study,” Obesity Research, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1353–1361, 2003. View at Scopus
  34. I. Sorkhou, K. Al-Qallaf, N. Al-Shamali, A. Hajia, and B. Al-Qallaf, “Childhood obesity in Kuwait—prevalence and trends,” Family Medicine, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 463–464, 2003. View at Scopus
  35. M. K. Serdula, D. Ivery, R. J. Coates, D. S. Freedman, D. F. Williamson, and T. Byers, “Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 167–177, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. M. Lee, A. Gebremariam, S. Vijan, and J. G. Gurney, “Excess body mass index-years, a measure of degree and duration of excess weight, and risk for incident diabetes,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. H. N. Madanat, K. P. Troutman, and B. Al-Madi, “The nutrition transition in Jordan: the political, economic and food consumption contexts,” Promotion & education, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 6–10, 2008. View at Scopus
  38. M. M. Al-Nozha, M. A. Al-Maatouq, Y. Y. Al-Mazrou et al., “Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1603–1610, 2004. View at Scopus
  39. A. I. Al-Othaimeen, M. Al-Nozha, and A. K. Osman, “Obesity: an emerging problem in Saudi Arabia. Analysis of data from the national nutrition survey,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 441–448, 2007. View at Scopus
  40. J. A. Al-Lawati, A. M. Al Riyami, A. J. Mohammed, and P. Jousilahti, “Increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Oman,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 954–957, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. H. Herman, R. E. Aubert, M. A. Ali, E. S. Sous, and A. Badran, “Diabetes mellitus in Egypt: risk factors, prevalence and future burden,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 144–148, 1997. View at Scopus
  42. I. S. Salti, M. Khogali, S. Alam, N. A. Haidar, and A. Masri, “Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in Lebanon,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 462–471, 1997. View at Scopus
  43. D. M. Rabi, A. L. Edwards, D. A. Southern et al., “Association of socio-economic status with diabetes prevalence and utilization of diabetes care services,” BMC Health Services Research, vol. 6, article 124, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. M. Robbins, V. Vaccarino, H. Zhang, and S. V. Kasl, “Socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes in African American and non-Hispanic White women and men: evidence from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 76–83, 2001. View at Scopus
  45. M. V. Williams, D. W. Baker, R. M. Parker, and J. R. Nurss, “Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease: a study of patients with hypertension and diabetes,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 2, pp. 166–172, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. N. Abdella, M. Al Arouj, A. Al Nakhi, A. Al Assoussi, and M. Moussa, “Non-insulin-dependent diabetes in Kuwait: prevalence rates and associated risk factors,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 187–196, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. K. Ajlouni, Y. S. Khader, A. Batieha, H. Ajlouni, and M. El-Khateeb, “An increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Jordan over 10 years,” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 317–324, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Bener, M. Zirie, I. M. Janahi, A. O. A. A. Al-Hamaq, M. Musallam, and N. J. Wareham, “Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in a population-based study of Qatar,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 99–106, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. F. Fouad, S. Rastam, K. D. Ward, and W. Maziak, “Prevalence of obesity and its associated factors in Aleppo, Syria,” Prevention and Control, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 85–94, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. W. Jeffery and A. M. Rick, “Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between body mass index and marriage-related factors,” Obesity Research, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 809–815, 2002. View at Scopus
  51. Y. Khader, A. Batieha, H. Ajlouni, M. El-Khateeb, and K. Ajlouni, “Obesity in Jordan: prevalence, associated factors, comorbidities, and change in prevalence over ten years,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. O. Musaiger, A. H. A. Al-Awadi, and M. A. Al-Mannai, “Lifestyle and social factors associated with obesity among the Bahraini adult population,” Ecology of Food Nutrition, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 121–133, 2000. View at Scopus
  53. A. H. Bittles, “Consanguinity and its relevance to clinical genetics,” Clinical Genetics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 89–98, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C. C. Anokute, “Suspected synergism between consanguinity and familial aggregation in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia,” Journal of the Royal Society of Health, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 167–169, 1992. View at Scopus
  55. F. Al-Mahroos and P. M. Mckeigue, “High prevalence of diabetes in bahrainis: associations with ethnicity and raised plasma cholesterol,” Diabetes Care, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 936–942, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. L. Jaber, T. Shohat, J. I. Rotter, and M. Shohat, “Consanguinity and common adult diseases in Israeli Arab communities,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 346–348, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. A. O. Musaiger, “Diet and prevention of coronary heart disease in the Arab Middle East countries,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 9–16, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. O. Galal, “Nutrition-related health patterns in the Middle East,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 337–343, 2003. View at Scopus
  59. J. A. Marshall, R. F. Hamman, and J. Baxter, “High-fat, low-carbohydrate diet and the etiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The San Luis Valley Diabetes Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 134, no. 6, pp. 590–603, 1991. View at Scopus
  60. K. A. Meyer, L. H. Kushi, D. R. Jacobs, and A. R. Folsom, “Dietary fat and incidence of type 2 diabetes in older Iowa women,” Diabetes Care, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1528–1535, 2001. View at Scopus
  61. K. A. Meyer, L. H. Kushi, D. R. Jacobs, J. Slavin, T. A. Sellers, and A. R. Folsom, “Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 921–930, 2000. View at Scopus
  62. J. Montonen, P. Knekt, R. Järvinen, A. Aromaa, and A. Reunanen, “Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 622–629, 2003. View at Scopus
  63. J. Salmerón, A. Ascherio, E. B. Rimm et al., “Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 545–550, 1997. View at Scopus
  64. J. Stevens, K. Ahn, Juhaeri, D. Houston, L. Steffan, and D. Couper, “Dietary fiber intake and glycemic index and incidence of diabetes in African-American and white adults. The ARIC study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1715–1721, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. M. Van Dam, W. C. Willett, E. B. Rimm, M. J. Stampfer, and F. B. Hu, “Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 417–424, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. FAO Statistics Division, “Food Balance Sheets, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,” Rome, Italy, 2010, http://faostat.fao.org/.
  67. Y. Y. Al-Kandari, “Prevalence of obesity in Kuwait and its relation to sociocultural variables,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 147–154, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. M. Midhet, A. A. Al-Mohaimeed, and F. K. Sharaf, “Lifestyle related risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 768–774, 2010. View at Scopus
  69. C. J. Caspersen, K. E. Powell, and G. Christenson, “Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research,” Public Health Reports, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 126–131, 1985. View at Scopus
  70. F. B. Hu, R. J. Sigal, J. W. Rich-Edwards et al., “Walking compared with vigorous physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women: a prospective study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 15, pp. 1433–1439, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. E. Manson, E. B. Rimm, M. J. Stampfer et al., “Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women,” Lancet, vol. 338, no. 8770, pp. 774–778, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. F. B. Hu, “Sedentary lifestyle and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes,” Lipids, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. S. Rana, T. Y. Li, J. E. Manson, and F. B. Hu, “Adiposity compared with physical inactivity and risk of type 2 diabetes in women,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. M. Al-Hazzaa, “Prevalence of physical inactivity in Saudi Arabia: a brief review,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 10, no. 4-5, pp. 663–670, 2004. View at Scopus
  75. A. O. Musaiger, “Overweight and obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: can we control it?” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 789–793, 2004. View at Scopus
  76. F. Al-Mahroos and K. Al-Roomi, “Overweight and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula: an overview,” Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 251–253, 1999. View at Scopus
  77. H. F. Abdul-Rahim, G. Holmboe-Ottesen, L. C. M. Stene et al., “Obesity in a rural and an urban Palestinian West Bank population,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 140–146, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. “STEPwise data from selected countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2003–2007,” WHO EMRO, http://www.emro.who.int/ncd/stepwise.htm.
  79. A. M. Abu El-Asrar, K. A. Al-Rubeaan, S. A. Al-Amro, D. Kangave, and O. A. Moharram, “Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy among Saudi diabetics,” International Ophthalmology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 155–161, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. H. Akbar, S. A. Mira, T. H. Zawawi, and H. M. Malibary, “Subclinical diabetic neuropathy: a common complication in Saudi diabetics,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 433–437, 2000. View at Scopus
  81. M. M. Hussein, J. M. V. Mooij, H. Roujouleh, and H. El-Sayed, “Observations in a Saudi-Arabian dialysis population over a 13-year period,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1072–1076, 1994. View at Scopus
  82. M. S. Jondeby, G. G. De-Los Santos, A. M. Al-Ghamdi et al., “Caring for hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia: past, present and future,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 199–204, 2001. View at Scopus
  83. A. Awada and S. Al Rajeh, “The Saudi Stroke Data Bank. Analysis of the first 1000 cases,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 265–269, 1999. View at Scopus
  84. S. Al-Rajeh, E. B. Larbi, O. Bademosi et al., “Stroke register: experience from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 86–89, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. A. Al Zahrani, H. M. S. Al Bar, A. Bahnassi, and A. A. Abdulaal, “The distribution of peripheral arterial disease in a defined population of elderly high-risk Saudi patients,” International Angiology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 123–128, 1997. View at Scopus
  86. W. H. Herman, R. E. Aubert, M. M. Engelgau et al., “Diabetes mellitus in Egypt: glycaemic control and microvascular and neuropathic complications,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1045–1051, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. R. Khandekar, J. A. Lawatii, A. J. Mohammed, and A. A. Raisi, “Diabetic retinopathy in Oman: a hospital based study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 1061–1064, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. A. K. S. Jbour, N. S. Jarrah, A. M. Radaideh et al., “Prevalence and predictors of diabetic foot syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus in Jordan,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 761–764, 2003. View at Scopus
  89. O. A. Kadiki and R. B. M. Roaed, “Epidemiological and clinical patterns of diabetes mellitus in Benghazi, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 1999. View at Scopus
  90. N. Sulaiman, A. Hamdan, H. Tamim, D. A. Mahmood, and D. Young, “The prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety in a sample of diabetic patients in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates,” BMC Family Practice, vol. 11, article 80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. B. S. Cooper and D. P. Rice, “The economic cost of illness revisited,” Social Security Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 21–36, 1976. View at Scopus
  92. D. P. Rice, T. A. Hodgson, and A. N. Kopstein, “The economic costs of illness: a replication and update,” Health Care Financing Review, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61–80, 1985. View at Scopus
  93. T. A. Hodgson, “The state of the art of cost-of-illness estimates,” Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research, vol. 4, pp. 129–164, 1983. View at Scopus
  94. T. J. Songer and L. Ettaro, “Studies on the Cost of Diabetes. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,” Division of Diabetes Translation, 1998.
  95. R. J. Rubin, W. M. Altman, and D. N. Mendelson, “Health care expenditures for people with diabetes mellitus, 1992,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 809A–809F, 1994. View at Scopus
  96. A. K. Taylor, “Medical expenditures and insurance coverage for people with diabetes: estimates from the national medical care expenditure survey,” Diabetes Care, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 87–94, 1987. View at Scopus
  97. World Health Statistics 2009, World Health Organization, 2009, http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/2009/en/index.html.
  98. The World Factbook 2009, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2009, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/.
  99. Arab Human Development Report, AHDR, 2009, http://www.arab-hdr.org/publications/contents/2009/ch7-e.pdf.
  100. S. R. Salpeter, N. S. Buckley, J. A. Kahn, and E. E. Salpeter, “Meta-analysis: metformin treatment in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 149–157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. Astrup, J. Dyerberg, M. Selleck, and S. Stender, “Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 48–52, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. S. S. Bassuk and J. E. Manson, “Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 1193–1204, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. T. Fritz, P. Wändell, H. Åberg, and P. Engfeldt, “Walking for exercise—does three times per week influence risk factors in type 2 diabetes?” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. X. R. Pan, G. W. Li, Y. H. Hu et al., “Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Qing IGT and diabetes study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 537–544, 1997. View at Scopus
  105. G. Li, P. Zhang, J. Wang et al., “The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 20-year follow-up study,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9626, pp. 1783–1789, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. J. Tuomilehto, J. Lindström, J. G. Eriksson et al., “Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 18, pp. 1343–1350, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. W. C. Knowler, E. Barrett-Connor, S. E. Fowler et al., “Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 6, pp. 393–403, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. W. C. Knowler, S. E. Fowler, R. F. Hamman, et al., “10-year follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9702, pp. 1677–1686, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. A. Ramachandran, C. Snehalatha, S. Mary, B. Mukesh, A. D. Bhaskar, and V. Vijay, “The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1),” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 289–297, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. N. R. Pinelli, A. S. Jantz, E. T. Martin, and L. A. Jaber, “Sensitivity and specificity of glycated hemoglobin as a diagnostic test for diabetes and prediabetes in Arabs,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. E1680–E1683, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  111. J. A. Al-Lawati and J. Tuomilehto, “Diabetes risk score in Oman: a tool to identify prevalent type 2 diabetes among Arabs of the Middle East,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 438–444, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. A. Abdul-Ghani, M. Matsuda, M. Sabbah et al., “The relative contributions of insulin resistance and beta cell failure to the transition from normal to impaired glucose tolerance varies in different ethnic groups,” Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 105–112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. A. Ramachandran, S. Chamukuttan, S. Immaneni et al., “High incidence of glucose intolerance in Asian-Indian subjects with acute coronary syndrome,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2492–2496, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. J. E. Sanderson, B. Mayosi, S. Yusuf et al., “Global burden of cardiovascular disease,” Heart, vol. 93, no. 10, p. 1175, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. S. Anand, S. Yusuf, V. Vuksan et al., “Differences in risk factors, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease between ethnic groups in Canada: The Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups (SHARE),” Lancet, vol. 356, no. 9226, pp. 279–284, 2000. View at Scopus
  116. F. Razak, S. S. Anand, H. Shannon et al., “Defining obesity cut points in a multiethnic population,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 16, pp. 2111–2118, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. S. S. Anand, M. A. Tarnopolsky, S. Rashid et al., “Adipocyte hypertrophy, fatty liver and metabolic risk factors in south asians: the molecular study of health and risk in ethnic groups (mol-SHARE),” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 7, Article ID e22112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus