About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 124958, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/124958
Research Article

Independent Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, China

Received 7 December 2012; Revised 12 February 2013; Accepted 18 March 2013

Academic Editor: Kaori Minehira

Copyright © 2013 Hongyun Lu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. C. Farrell and C. Z. Larter, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: from steatosis to cirrhosis,” Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. S99–S112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. D. Browning, L. S. Szczepaniak, R. Dobbins et al., “Prevalence of hepatic steatosis in an urban population in the United States: impact of ethnicity,” Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1387–1395, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. A. Welsh, S. Karpen, and M. B. Vos, “Increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among United States adolescents, 1988–1994 to 2007–2010,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 162, no. 3, pp. 496–500, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. G. Bedogni, L. Miglioli, F. Masutti, C. Tiribelli, G. Marchesini, and S. Bellentani, “Prevalence of and risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: the dionysos nutrition and liver study,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 44–52, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. Hu, Y. Huang, Z. Bao, et al., “Prevalence and factors associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in shanghai work-units,” BMC Gastroenterol, vol. 12, article 123, 2012.
  6. X. Ying, Y. Jiang, Y. Qian, Z. Jiang, Z. Song, and C. Zhao, “Association between insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults,” Iranian Journal of Public Health, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 45–49, 2012.
  7. G. Musso, R. Gambino, S. Bo, and M. Cassader, “Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with adult treatment panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 562, p. 568, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Hamaguchi, N. Takeda, T. Kojima, et al., “Identification of individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by the diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 13, pp. 1508–1516, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. G. Targher, F. Marra, and G. Marchesini, “Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: causal effect or epiphenomenon?” Diabetologia, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1947–1953, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Y. Choi, D. Kim, H. J. Kim et al., “The relation between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of coronary heart disease in Koreans,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 8, pp. 1953–1960, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Treeprasertsuk, F. Lopez-Jimenez, and K. D. Lindor, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the coronary artery disease,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 35–45, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, R. Padovani et al., “Relations between carotid artery wall thickness and liver histology in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1325–1330, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Villanova, S. Moscatiello, S. Ramilli et al., “Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk profile in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 473–480, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Kim, S. Y. Choi, E. H. Park, et al., “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with coronary artery calcification,” Hepatology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 605–613, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. K. C. Sung, S. H. Wild, H. J. Kwag, and C. D. Byrne, “Fatty liver, insulin resistance, and features of metabolic syndrome: relationships with coronary artery calcium in 10, 153 people,” Diabetes Care, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 2359–2364, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. B. J. Kim, N. H. Kim, B. S. Kim, and J. H. Kang, “The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness in nondiabetic, nonhypertensive individuals,” Cardiology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. Y. Yilmaz, E. Senates, T. Ayyildiz, et al., “Characterization of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease unrelated to the metabolic syndrome,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 411–418, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, “Executive summary of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III),” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 285, no. 19, pp. 2486–2497, 2001. View at Scopus
  19. W. Li, D. Ma, M. Liu et al., “Association between metabolic syndrome and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 539–547, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. P. J. Osborn, C. A. Wright, G. Levy, M. B. King, R. Deo, and I. Nazareth, “Relative risk of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in people with severe mental illnesses: systematic review and metaanalysis,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 8, article 84, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. M. Boekholdt, B. J. Arsenault, S. Mora, et al., “Association of LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B levels with risk of cardiovascular events among patients treated with statins: a meta-analysis,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 307, pp. 1302–1309, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Y. Choi, D. Kim, J. H. Kang et al., “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease: relation of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to carotid atherosclerosis,” The Korean Journal of Hepatology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 77–88, 2008. View at Scopus
  23. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, R. Padovani et al., “Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Type 2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 403–409, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, R. Padovani et al., “Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease among type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1212–1218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Targher, L. Bertolini, F. Poli et al., “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and risk of future cardiovascular events among type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 3541–3546, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Assy, A. Djibre, R. Farah, M. Grosovski, and A. Marmor, “Presence of coronary plaques in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Radiology, vol. 254, no. 2, pp. 393–400, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Nseir, A. Shalata, A. Marmor, and N. Assy, “Mechanisms linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with coronary artery disease,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 3439–3449, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Krawczyk, L. Bonfrate, and P. Portincasa, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 695–708, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. H. Lu, L. Zeng, B. Liang, X. Shu, and D. Xie, “High prevalence of coronary heart sisease in type 2 diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 571–575, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Musso, R. Gambino, M. Cassader, and G. Pagano, “Meta-analysis: natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diagnostic accuracy of non-invasive tests for liver disease severity,” Annals of Medicine, vol. 43, pp. 617–649, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. A. T. Alper, H. Hasdemir, S. Sahin et al., “The relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with metabolic syndrome,” Türk Kardiyoloji Derneǧi Arşivi, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 376–381, 2008. View at Scopus
  32. G. Targher, “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a determinant of cardiovascular disease,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 190, no. 1, pp. 18–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. O. Bayturan, E. M. Tuzcu, A. Lavoie et al., “The metabolic syndrome, its component risk factors, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 5, pp. 478–484, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. J. Dunkley, K. Charles, L. J. Gray, J. Camosso-Stefinovic, M. J. Davies, and K. Khunti, “Effectiveness of interventions for reducing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in people with metabolic syndrome: systematic review and mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 14, pp. 616–625, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. V. L. Misra, M. Khashab, and N. Chalasani, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular risk,” Current Gastroenterology Reports, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 50–55, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Obika and H. Noguchi, “Diagnosis and evaluation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Experimental Diabetes Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 145754, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. G. Targher, C. P. Day, and E. Bonora, “Risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 14, pp. 1341–1350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Ghouri, D. Preiss, and N. Sattar, “Liver enzymes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and incident cardiovascular disease: a narrative review and clinical perspective of prospective data,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 1156–1161, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. K. Schindhelm, M. Diamant, and R. J. Heine, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease risk,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 181–187, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Moscatiello, R. di Luzio, A. S. Sasdelli, and G. Marchesini, “Managing the combination of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 12, pp. 657–2672, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. L. S. Bhatia, N. P. Curzen, and C. D. Byrne, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and vascular risk,” Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol. 27, pp. 20–428, 2012.