Table 1: Characteristics of studies include in meta-analysis.

First author
Country Participants Study design Followup (person-year) NOS score Outcome measures
No. in analysis Characteristics

Assy (2010)Israel 800 Individuals with law to intermediate risk for CAD and presence of fatty liverCross-sectionalNA 7 Coronary heart
disease coronary atherosclerosis coronary
plague (%)

Choi (2008)Korea 659 Healthy people Cross-sectional NA 7 Carotid

Targher (2007)Italy2392 Diabetic patients Cross-sectional NA 7 Coronary heart
cerebrovascular disease
peripheral vascular

Hamaguchi (2012)Japan 1647 Healthy people Cohort 7115 8 Coronary heart
ischemic stroke

Targher (2006)Italy800 Diabetic patients Cross-sectional NA 7 Coronary disease
peripheral disease
cerebral disease

Targher (2005)Italy744 Diabetic patients Cohort 3720 7 Myocardial
coronary artery
bypass grafting
ischemic stroke
events death

NOS score = Newcastle-Ottawa scale: used for quality assessment. We assigned NOS scores of 1–3, 4–6, and 7–9 for low, intermediate, and high-quality studies, respectively. These six studies are all adjusted for confounders, such as age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, smoking history, LDL cholesterol, GGT levels and use of medications (i.e., hypoglycemic, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, or anti-platelet drugs), and NCEP ATP III-defined MS.