Table 1: Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study population in all groups and based on the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome.

VariableAllMetSNon-MetS

Number ( )203 13469
Age (years)52.5 ± 9.6 52.3 ± 9.752.7 ± 9.10.74
BMI (kg/m2)30.8 ± 5.7 32.2 ± 5.528.05 ± 5.30.00
Waist circumference100.7 ± 12.7 104.5 ± 10.892 ± 12.250.00
HbA1c8.8 ± 1.9 8.6 ± 1.88.38 ± 2.130.38
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.0 ± 0.9 5.1 ± 0.944.9 ± 0.920.1
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)3.1 ± 0.8 3.1 ± 0.883.0 ± 0.750.29
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.1 ± 0.3 1.09 ± 0.311.29 ± 0.380.00
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.6 ± 0.7 1.83 ± 0.781.26 ± 0.520.00
Apo B (g/L)1.0 ± 0.2 1.14 ± 0.260.99 ± 0.210.00
Apo A-1 (g/L)1.3 ± 0.2 1.35 ± 0.241.41 ± 0.310.17
Apo B/Apo A-10.8 ± 0.2 0.85 ± 0.22 0.74 ± 0.280.00

Median (IQR)MetSNon-MetS

Total OC (μg/L)8.8 (4.5)8.4 (3.7)9.8 (5.8)0.01
Carboxylated OC (μg/L)0.53 (0.5)0.54 (0.6)0.53 (0.4)0.66
Undercarboxylated OC (μg/L)1.14 (1.1)1.04 (1.0)1.4 (1.7)0.03

Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise stated. MetS: metabolic syndrome, BMI: body mass index, LDL: low-density lipoprotein, HDL: high-density lipoprotein, Apo A-1: apolipoprotein A-1, Apo B: apolipoprotein B, OC: osteocalcin. The values were yielded from the MetS versus Non-MetS comparison of the values for each of the measured parameters. values < 0.05 (bold) were considered statistically significant. IQR: interquartile range. *Mann-Whitney test.