About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 216107, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/216107
Research Article

Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

1Department of Endocrinology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 139 Ziqiang Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China
2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hebei Medical University, 361 East Zhongshan Road, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, China

Received 30 December 2012; Revised 8 March 2013; Accepted 13 March 2013

Academic Editor: Ling-Qing Yuan

Copyright © 2013 Peng Xue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. Shimon, “Growth hormone replacement for adult growth hormone deficiency,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1977–1983, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Ernst and E. R. Froesch, “Growth hormone dependent stimulation of osteoblast-like cells in serum-free cultures via local synthesis of insulin-like growth factor I,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 142–147, 1988. View at Scopus
  3. Y. H. Joung, E. J. Lim, P. Darvin et al., “MSM enhances GH signaling via the Jak2/STAT5b pathway in osteoblast-like cells and osteoblast differentiation through the activation of STAT5b in MSCs,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47477, 2012.
  4. P. V. Carroll, E. R. Christ, B. Å. Bengtsson et al., “Growth hormone deficiency in adulthood and the effects of growth hormone replacement: a review,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 382–395, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Geisler, N. Lass, N. Reinsch et al., “Quality of life in children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency: association with growth hormone treatment,” Hormone Research in Paediatrics, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 94–99, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. P. Kann, B. Piepkorn, B. Schehler et al., “Effect of long-term treatment with GH on bone metabolism, bone mineral density and bone elasticity in GH-deficient adults,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 561–568, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. A. Tritos, A. H. Hamrahian, D. King et al., “A longer interval without GH replacement and female gender are associated with lower bone mineral density in adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency: a KIMS database analysis,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 343–351, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. C. Wüster, R. Abs, B. A. Bengtsson et al., “The influence of growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone replacement therapy, and other aspects of hypopituitarism on fracture rate and bone mineral density,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 398–405, 2001. View at Scopus
  9. T. Rosén, L. Wilhelmsen, K. Landin-Wilhelmsen, G. Lappas, and B. Å. Bengtsson, “Increased fracture frequency in adult patients with hypopituitarism and GH deficiency,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 240–245, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. H. L. Fideleff, H. R. Boquete, G. Stalldecker, A. V. Giaccio, and P. G. V. Sobrado, “Comparative results of a 4-year study on cardiovascular parameters, lipid metabolism, body composition and bone mass between untreated and treated adult growth hormone deficient patients,” Growth Hormone and IGF Research, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 318–324, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. van den Heijkant, G. Hoorweg-Nijman, J. Huisman et al., “Effects of growth hormone therapy on bone mass, metabolic balance, and well-being in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. e231–e238, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. N. Suganuma, M. Furuhashi, T. Hirooka et al., “Bone mineral density in adult patients with Turner's syndrome: analyses of the effectiveness of GH and ovarian steroid hormone replacement therapies,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 263–269, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. B. Hansen, K. Brixen, N. Vahl et al., “Effects of 12 months of growth hormone (GH) treatment on calciotropic hormones, calcium homeostasis, and bone metabolism in adults with acquired GH deficiency: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 3352–3359, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Johannsson, T. Rosén, I. Bosaeus, L. Sjöström, and B. Å. Bengtsson, “Two years of growth hormone (GH) treatment increases bone mineral content and density in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset GH deficiency,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 2865–2873, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Rodríguez-Arnao, I. James, A. Jabbar et al., “Serum collagen crosslinks as markers of bone turn-over during GH replacement therapy in growth hormone deficient adults,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 455–462, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. C. Cuneo, S. Judd, J. D. Wallace et al., “The Australian multicenter trial of growth hormone (GH) treatment in GH- deficient adults,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 107–116, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. M. K. Biller, G. Sesmilo, H. B. A. Baum, D. Hayden, D. Schoenfeld, and A. Klibanski, “Withdrawal of long-term physiological growth hormone (GH) administration: differential effects on bone density and body composition in men with adult-onset GH deficiency,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 970–976, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Koranyi, J. Svensson, G. Götherström, K. S. Sunnerhagen, B. Å. Bengtsson, and G. Johannsson, “Baseline characteristics and the effects of five years of GH replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency of childhood or adulthood onset: a comparative, prospective study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 4693–4699, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. Lanzi, M. Losa, I. Villa et al., “GH replacement therapy increases plasma osteoprotegerin levels in GH-deficient adults,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. E. Underwood, K. M. Attie, and J. Baptista, “Growth hormone (GH) dose-response in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency: a two-year, multicenter, multiple-dose, Placebo-controlled study,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 5273–5280, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Hubina, L. Kovacs, I. Szabolcs et al., “The effect of gender and age on growth hormone replacement in growth hormone-deficient patients,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 247–253, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. N. Bravenboer, P. J. Holzmann, J. C. Ter Maaten, L. M. Stuurman, J. C. Roos, and P. Lips, “Effect of long-term growth hormone treatment on bone mass and bone metabolism in growth hormone-deficient men,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1778–1784, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. I. Arwert, J. C. Roos, P. Lips, J. W. R. Twisk, R. A. Manoliu, and M. L. Drent, “Effects of 10 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adult GH-deficient men,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 310–316, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. L. Boguszewski, L. H. F. Meister, D. C. T. Zaninelli, and R. B. Radominski, “One year of GH replacement therapy with a fixed low-dose regimen improves body composition, bone mineral density and lipid profile of GH-deficient adults,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 67–75, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Benedini, L. Dalle Carbonare, N. Albiger et al., “Effect of short-term therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (GH) on metabolic parameters and preclinical atherosclerotic markers in hypopituitary patients with growth hormone deficiency,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 16–21, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. J. Snyder, B. M. K. Biller, A. Zagar et al., “Effect of growth hormone replacement on BMD in adult-onset growth hormone deficiency,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 762–770, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Gotherstrom, B. A. Bengtsson, I. Bossæus, G. Johansson, and J. Svensson, “Ten-year GH replacement increase bone mineral density in hypopituitary patients with adult onset GH deficiency,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Rota, M. C. Savanelli, L. Tauchmanova et al., “Bone density and turnover in young adult patients with growth hormone deficiency after 2-year growth hormone replacement according with gender,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 94–103, 2008. View at Scopus
  29. G. S. Conway, M. Szarras-Czapnik, K. Racz et al., “Treatment for 24 months with recombinant human GH has a beneficial effect on bone mineral density in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 899–907, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Elbornsson, G. Gotherstrom, I. Bosaeus, B. A. Bengtsson, G. Johannsson, and J. Svensson, “Fifteen years of GH replacement increases bone mineral density in hypopituitary patients with adult-onset GH deficiency,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 787–795, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. W. Leung, S. A. Spencer, G. Cachianes et al., “Growth hormone receptor and serum binding protein: purification, cloning and expression,” Nature, vol. 330, no. 6148, pp. 537–543, 1987. View at Scopus
  32. M. Andreassen, J. Frystyk, J. Faber, and L. O. Kristensen, “GH activity and markers of inflammation: a crossover study in healthy volunteers treated with GH and a GH receptor antagonist,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 811–819, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. L. S. Mathews, R. E. Hammer, R. L. Brinster, and R. D. Palmiter, “Expression of insulin-like growth factor I in transgenic mice with elevated levels of growth hormone is correlated with growth,” Endocrinology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 433–437, 1988. View at Scopus
  34. N. S. Becker, P. Verdu, M. Georges et al., “The role of GHR and IGF1 genes in the genetic determination of African pygmies' short stature,” European Journal of Human Genetics, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. C. Barner, M. Petersson, B. Eden Engstrom, Hoybye, and C. :, “Effects on insulin sensitivity and body composition of combination therapy with GH and IGF1 in GH deficient adults with type 2 diabetes,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 167, no. 5, pp. 697–703, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. J. M. P. Holly and J. A. H. Wass, “Insulin-like growth factors; autocrine, paracrine or endocrine? New perspectives of the somatomedin hypothesis in the light of recent developments,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 611–618, 1989. View at Scopus
  37. F. I. Arnaldez and L. J. Helman, “Targeting the insulin growth factor receptor 1,” Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 527–542, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. Yakar, C. J. Rosen, W. G. Beamer et al., “Circulating levels of IGF-1 directly regulate bone growth and density,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 771–781, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Kassem, L. Mosekilde, and E. F. Eriksen, “Growth hormone stimulates proliferation of normal human bone marrow stromal osteoblast precursor cells in vitro,” Growth Regulation, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 131–135, 1994. View at Scopus
  40. J. M. Wit and C. Camacho-Hubner, “Endocrine regulation of longitudinal bone growth,” Endocrine Development, vol. 21, pp. 30–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. G. I. Baroncelli, S. Bertelloni, C. Ceccarelli, D. Cupelli, and G. Saggese, “Dynamics of bone turnover in children with GH deficiency treated with GH until final height,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 549–556, 2000. View at Scopus
  42. O. Klefter and U. Feldt-Rasmussen, “Is increase in bone mineral content caused by increase in skeletal muscle mass/strength in adult patients with GH-treated GH deficiency? A systematic literature analysis,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 213–221, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. N. Proctor, L. J. Melton, S. Khosla, C. S. Crowson, M. K. O'Connor, and B. L. Riggs, “Relative influence of physical activity, muscle mass and strength on bone density,” Osteoporosis International, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 944–952, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. M. Frost, “The Utah paradigm of skeletal physiology: an overview of its insights for bone, cartilage and collagenous tissue organs,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 305–316, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Giustina, G. Mazziotti, and E. Canalis, “Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and the skeleton,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 535–559, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Kaur and S. R. Phadke, “Analysis of short stature cases referred for genetic evaluation,” The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 79, no. 12, pp. 1597–1600, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. R. D. Murray, C. J. Skillicorn, S. J. Howell, C. A. Lissett, A. Rahim, and S. M. Shalet, “Dose titration and patient selection increases the efficacy of GH replacement in severely GH deficient adults,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 749–757, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. A. Pocock, K. A. Noakes, M. Griffiths et al., “A comparison of longitudinal measurements in the spine and proximal femur using lunar and hologic instruments,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 2113–2118, 1997. View at Scopus
  49. W. M. Drake, J. Rodríguez-Arnao, J. U. Weaver et al., “The influence of gender on the short and long-term effects of growth hormone replacement on bone metabolism and bone mineral density in hypopituitary adults: a 5-year study,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 525–532, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. E. Olson, C. Ohlsson, and S. Mohan, “The role of GH/IGF-I-mediated mechanisms in sex differences in cortical bone size in mice,” Calcified Tissue International, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. V. Carroll, W. M. Drake, K. T. Maher et al., “Comparison of continuation or cessation of growth hormone (GH) therapy on body composition and metabolic status in adolescents with severe GH deficiency at completion of linear growth,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 3890–3895, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. V. K. B. Prabhakar and S. M. Shalet, “Aetiology, diagnosis, and management of hypopituitarism in adult life,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 82, no. 966, pp. 259–266, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. L. J. Woodhouse, A. Mukherjee, S. M. Shalet, and S. Ezzat, “The influence of growth hormone status on physical impairments, functional limitations, and health-related quality of life in adults,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 287–317, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. Hazem, M. B. Elamin, I. Bancos et al., “Body composition and quality of life in adults treated with GH therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. J. B. Deijen, L. I. Arwert, J. Witlox, and M. L. Drent, “Differential effect sizes of growth hormone replacement on quality of life, well-being and health status in growth hormone deficient patients: a meta-analysis,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 3, p. 63, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. G. Renehan, M. Zwahlen, C. Minder, S. T. O'Dwyer, S. M. Shalet, and M. Egger, “Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9418, pp. 1346–1353, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus