Table 1: General characteristics of patients with T2DM and the control subjects.

 Control group ( )T2DM group ( ) value

General characteristics
 Age (y) 0.061
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.069
 Height (cm) 0.611
 Weight (kg) 0.052
 Waist-to-hip ratio 0.055
 Waist circumference (cm) 0.633
 Hip circumference (cm) 0.126
 Systolic pressure (mmHg) 0.051
 Diastolic pressure (mmHg) 0.053
 FPG (mmol/L) 0.004**
 PBG (mmol/L) 0.016*
 HbA1C (%) 0.004**
Lifestyle factors
 Current smokers 57 (45.6%)24 (25.8%)0.003**
 Duration of cigarette smoking (y) 0.045*
 Alcohol users 53 (42.4%)26 (28.0%)0.033*
 Duration of alcohol use (y) 0.101
 Duration of tea consumption (y) 0.062
 Tea consumption (g/y) 0.955
 Staple food consumption (g/day) <0.001**
 Calcium intake of >1000 mg/day 26 (20.8%)19 (20.4%)0.543
 Physically active#46 (36.8%)85 (91.4%)<0.001**
 Duration of physical activity (y) 0.775
 Sufficient exposure to sun&123 (98.4%)91 (97.8%)0.765

T2DM: Type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMI: body mass index; FPG: fasting plasma glucose; PBG: postprandial blood glucose.
* ; ** .
Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
#Subjects engaging in strenuous exercise for more than 3 days per week were reported as being physically active.
&Subjects exposed to sunlight for more than 0.5 h/day were reported as having sufficient exposure.