Table 3: Effects of T2DM on bone mineral density and bone metabolism.

 Control group ( )T2DM group ( ) value

Hip
 Femoral neck T score 0.006**#
 Femoral neck BMD (g/cm2) 0.382#
 Trochanter major T score 0.023*#
 Trochanter major BMD (g/cm2) 0.021*#
 Ward's triangle T score 0.023*#
 Ward's triangle BMD (g/cm2) 0.036*#
 Femur total T score 0.438#
 Femur total BMD (g/cm2) 0.012*#
Lumbar spine
 Total spine (L1–L4) T score 0.137#
 Total spine (L1–L4) BMD (g/cm2) 0.015*#
Markers of bone resorption
 Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (U/L) 0.027*
 Urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine (g/mol) 0.160
Markers of bone formation
 Osteocalcin/bone gla protein (ng/mL) 0.031*
 Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (μg/L) 0.798
 Alkaline phosphatase (IU/L) 0.017*
Other markers that may affect bone metabolism
 Calcitonin (pg/mL) 0.034*
 Parathyroid hormone (pmol/L) 0.042*
 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (nmol/L) 0.052
 Insulin-like growth factor I (ng/mL) 0.042*
 Serum calcium (mmol/L) 0.048*
 Serum phosphorus (mmol/L) 0.031*
 Testosterone (nmol/L) 0.073
Symptoms of osteoporosis
 Duration of lumbago and back pain (y) <0.001**
 Duration of arthralgia (y) 0.689
 Fracture 18 (14.4%)28 (30.1%)0.004**
 Age of first fracture (y) 0.916

T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMD: bone mineral density.
* ; ** .
Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
#Adjusted for systolic pressure, cigarette smoking, and daily intake of dietary staple foods.