- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 329189, 7 pages
Cigarette Smoking Is Associated with Prolongation of the QTc Interval Duration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Athens University Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, 17 Agiou Thoma Street,
11527 Athens, Greece
Received 20 March 2013; Accepted 4 April 2013
Academic Editor: Ilias Migdalis
Copyright © 2013 Petros Thomakos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- D. Haire-Joshu, R. E. Glasgow, and T. L. Tibbs, “Smoking and diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1887–1898, 1999.
- S. M. J. M. Straus, J. A. Kors, M. L. De Bruin et al., “Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 362–367, 2006.
- B. S. Rana, P. O. Lim, A. A. O. Naas et al., “QT interval abnormalities are often present at diagnosis in diabetes and are better predictors of cardiac death than ankle brachial pressure index and autonomic function tests,” Heart, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 44–50, 2005.
- R. Cappato, P. Alboni, P. Pedroni, G. Gilli, and G. E. Antonioli, “Sympathetic and vagal influences on rate-dependent changes of QT interval in healthy subjects,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 1188–1193, 1991.
- R. Pop-Busui, “Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in diabetes: a clinical perspective,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 434–441, 2010.
- R. W. Shields Jr., “Heart rate variability with deep breathing as a clinical test of cardiovagal function,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 76, supplement 2, pp. S37–S40, 2009.
- O. N. Niedermaier, M. L. Smith, L. A. Beightol, Z. Zukowska-Grojec, D. S. Goldstein, and D. L. Eckberg, “Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function,” Circulation, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 562–571, 1993.
- U. Gerhardt, U. Hans, and H. Hohage, “Influence of smoking on baroreceptor function: 24 h measurements,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 941–946, 1999.
- M. Ileri, E. Yetkin, I. Tandoǧan et al., “Effect of habitual smoking on QT interval duration and dispersion,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 322–325, 2001.
- P. Dilaveris, A. Pantazis, E. Gialafos, F. Triposkiadis, and J. Gialafos, “The effects of cigarette smoking on the heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization,” American Heart Journal, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 833–837, 2001.
- L. Fauchier, P. Maison-Blanche, A. Forhan et al., “Association between heart rate-corrected QT interval and coronary risk factors in 2,894 healthy subjects (The DESIR Study),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 557–559, 2000.
- J. C. R. Mestre, M. L. Puig, O. F. Cepero, P. P. Amador, and A. Márquez-Guillén, “Studies of cardiovascular autonomic function and duration of QTc interval in smokers,” Revista Espanola de Cardiologia, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 259–263, 1996.
- F. Anan, N. Takahashi, T. Shinohara et al., “Smoking is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 459–465, 2006.
- G. L. Brinkman and O. Coates, “The effects of bronchitis, smoking and occupation on ventilation,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 87, pp. 684–693, 1963.
- J. R. Williams, “The Declaration of Helsinki and public health,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86, no. 8, pp. 650–652, 2008.
- Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, “Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use,” Circulation, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 1043–1065, 1996.
- S. Ahnve, “Correction of the QT interval for heart rate: review of different formulas and the use of Bazett's formula in myocardial infarction,” American Heart Journal, vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 568–574, 1985.
- C. H. Chen, E. Nevo, B. Fetics et al., “Estimation of Central aortic pressure waveform by mathematical transformation of radial tonometry pressure: validation of generalized transfer function,” Circulation, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 1827–1836, 1997.
- M. Di Rienzo, G. Parati, P. Castiglioni, R. Tordi, G. Mancia, and A. Pedotti, “Baroreflex effectiveness index: an additional measure of baroreflex control of heart rate in daily life,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 280, no. 3, pp. R744–R751, 2001.
- G. Andrassy, P. Bilixzy, C. Lengyel, and A. Szabo, “Duration and dispersion of QT interval in smokers,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 89, pp. 249–250, 2002.
- A. Algra, J. G. P. Tijssen, J. R. T. C. Roelandt, J. Pool, and J. Lubsen, “QT interval variables from 24 hour electrocardiography and the two year risk of sudden death,” British Heart Journal, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 1993.
- D. Ziegler, C. P. Zental, S. Perz et al., “Prediction of mortality using measures of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in the diabetic and nondiabetic population: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Cohort study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 556–561, 2008.
- E. G. Schouten, J. M. Dekker, P. Meppelink, F. J. Kok, J. P. Vandenbroucke, and J. Pool, “QT interval prolongation predicts cardiovascular mortality in an apparently healthy population,” Circulation, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1516–1523, 1991.
- A. Avolio and M. O'Rourke, “Baroreflex function: improved characterization by use of central vascular parameters compared with peripheral pressure,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1067–1070, 2002.
- M. A. Kowalewski and M. Urban, “Short- and long-term reproducibility of autonomic measures in supine and standing positions,” Clinical Science, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2004.
- A. I. Vinik and T. Erbas, “Recognizing and treating diabetic autonomic neuropathy,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 928–944, 2001.
- N. L. Benowitz, F. Kuyt, and P. Jacob III, “Influence of nicotine on cardiovascular and hormonal effects of cigarette smoking,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 74–81, 1984.
- N. Takahashi, M. Nakagawa, T. Saikawa et al., “Regulation of QT indices mediated by autonomic nervous function in patients with type 2 diabetes,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 375–379, 2004.
- A. Festa, R. D'Agostino, P. Rautaharju, L. Mykkänen, and S. M. Haffner, “Relation of systemic blood pressure, left ventricular mass, insulin sensitivity, and coronary artery disease to QT interval duration in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 86, no. 10, pp. 1117–1122, 2000.
- R. S. Bexton, H. O. Vallin, and A. J. Camm, “Diurnal variation of the QT interval—influence of the autonomic nervous system,” British Heart Journal, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 253–258, 1986.