- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 381014, 8 pages
Hepatic Steatosis and Thyroid Function Tests in Overweight and Obese Children
1Department of Pediatrics, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324 00161 Rome, Italy
2Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council, 00133 Rome, Italy
Received 30 October 2012; Revised 11 January 2013; Accepted 19 January 2013
Academic Editor: Carine Beysen
Copyright © 2013 L. Pacifico et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. Angulo, “Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 16, pp. 1221–1231, 2002.
- A. Kotronen and H. Yki-Järvinen, “Fatty liver: a novel component of the metabolic syndrome,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 27–38, 2008.
- L. Pacifico, E. Poggiogalle, V. Cantisani, et al., “Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a clinical and laboratory challenge,” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 275–288, 2010.
- S. Liangpunsakul and N. Chalasani, “Is hypothyroidism a risk factor for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis?” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 340–343, 2003.
- M. G. Silveira, F. D. Mendes, N. N. Diehl, F. T. Enders, and K. D. Lindor, “Thyroid dysfunction in primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Liver International, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1094–1100, 2009.
- C. Xu, L. Xu, C. Yu, M. Miao, and Y. Li, “Association between thyroid function and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in euthyroid elderly Chinese,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 240–246, 2011.
- G. E. Chung, D. Kim, W. Kim, et al., “Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease across the spectrum of hypothyroidism,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 150–156, 2012.
- M. R. Pagadala, C. O. Zein, S. Dasarathy, L. M. Yerian, R. Lopez, and A. J. McCullough, “Prevalence of hypothyroidism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 528–534, 2012.
- T. Ittermann, R. Haring, H. Wallaschofski, et al., “Inverse association between serum free thyroxine levels and hepatic steatosis: results from the study of health in Pomerania,” Thyroid, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 568–574, 2012.
- L. Carulli, S. Ballestri, A. Lonardo, et al., “Is nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with a high-though-normal thyroid stimulating hormone level and lower cholesterol levels?” Internal and Emergency Medicine. In press.
- C. J. Gardner, P. Richardson, C. Wong, N. Polavarapu, G. J. Kemp, and D. J. Cuthbertson, “Hypothyroidism in a patient with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,” British Medical Journal, vol. 342, no. 7789, pp. 168–170, 2011.
- T. J. Cole, M. C. Bellizzi, K. M. Flegal, and W. H. Dietz, “Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey,” British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7244, pp. 1240–1243, 2000.
- L. Pacifico, C. Anania, F. Ferraro, G. M. Andreoli, and C. Chiesa, “Thyroid function in childhood obesity and metabolic comorbidity,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 413, no. 3-4, pp. 396–405, 2012.
- T. E. Hamilton, S. Davis, L. Onstad, and K. J. Kopecky, “Thyrotropin levels in a population with no clinical, autoantibody, or ultrasonographic evidence of thyroid disease: implications for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1224–1230, 2008.
- G. Brabant, P. Beck-Peccoz, B. Jarzab et al., “Is there a need to redefine the upper normal limit of TSH?” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 154, no. 5, pp. 633–637, 2006.
- P. Laurberg, S. Andersen, A. Carlé, J. Karmisholt, N. Knudsen, and I. B. Pedersen, “The TSH upper reference limit: where are we at?” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 232–239, 2011.
- M. B. Zimmermann, S. Y. Hess, L. Molinari et al., “New reference values for thyroid volume by ultrasound in iodine-sufficient schoolchildren: A World Health Organization/Nutrition for Health and Development Iodine Deficiency Study Group Report,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2004.
- S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic syndrome scientific statement by the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2243–2244, 2005.
- E. Goodman, S. R. Daniels, J. B. Meigs, and L. M. Dolan, “Instability in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in adolescents,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 17, pp. 2316–2322, 2007.
- D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, A. S. Rudenski, B. A. Naylor, D. F. Treacher, and R. C. Turner, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985.
- L. Pacifico, C. Anania, F. Martino et al., “Functional and morphological vascular changes in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1643–1651, 2010.
- J. B. Schwimmer, W. Dunn, G. J. Norman et al., “SAFETY study: alanine aminotransferase cutoff values are set too high for reliable detection of pediatric chronic liver disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 1357–1364, 2010.
- G. Targher, M. Montagnana, G. Salvagno et al., “Association between serum TSH, free T4 and serum liver enzyme activities in a large cohort of unselected outpatients,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 481–484, 2008.
- C. Rochon, I. Tauveron, C. Dejax et al., “Response of glucose disposal to hyperinsulinaemia in human hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism,” Clinical Science, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 7–15, 2003.
- G. Dimitriadis, P. Mitrou, V. Lambadiari et al., “Insulin action in adipose tissue and muscle in hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 4930–4937, 2006.
- E. Pucci, L. Chiovato, and A. Pinchera, “Thyroid and lipid metabolism,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 24, supplement 2, pp. S109–S112, 2000.
- T. O'Brien, S. F. Dinneen, P. C. O'Brien, and P. J. Palumbo, “Hyperlipidemia in patients with primary and secondary hypothyroidism,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 68, no. 9, pp. 860–866, 1993.
- M. A. Michalaki, A. G. Vagenakis, A. S. Leonardou et al., “Thyroid function in humans with morbid obesity,” Thyroid, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2006.
- Y. Raftopoulos, D. J. Gagné, P. Papasavas et al., “Improvement of hypothyroidism after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity,” Obesity Surgery, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 509–513, 2004.
- G. Dimitriadis, M. Parry-Billings, S. Bevan et al., “The effects of insulin on transport and metabolism of glucose in skeletal muscle from hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 475–483, 1997.
- G. D. Dimitriadis, B. Leighton, M. Parry-Billings, D. West, and E. A. Newsholme, “Effects of hypothyroidism on the sensitivity of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis to insulin in the soleus muscle of the rat,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 369–373, 1989.
- E. Maratou, D. J. Hadjidakis, A. Kollias et al., “Studies of insulin resistance in patients with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 5, pp. 785–790, 2009.
- E. N. Pearce, “Hypothyroidism and dyslipidemia: modern concepts and approaches,” Current Cardiology Reports, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 451–456, 2004.
- E. N. Pearce, “Update in lipid alterations in subclinical hypothyroidism,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 326–333, 2012.
- I. Aeberli, A. Jung, S. B. Murer et al., “During rapid weight loss in obese children, reductions in TSH predict improvements in insulin sensitivity independent of changes in body weight or fat,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 5412–5418, 2010.
- N. S. Nader, R. S. Bahn, M. D. Johnson, A. L. Weaver, R. Singh, and S. Kumar, “Relationships between thyroid function and lipid status or insulin resistance in a pediatric population,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1333–1339, 2010.
- M. C. Carreras, J. G. Peralta, D. P. Converso et al., “Modulation of liver mitochondrial NOS is implicated in thyroid-dependent regulation of O2 uptake,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 281, no. 6, pp. H2282–H2288, 2001.
- V. P. Skulachev, “Role of uncoupled and non-coupled oxidations in maintenance of safely low levels of oxygen and its one-electron reductants,” Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 169–202, 1996.
- M. Rotondi, P. Leporati, A. La Manna et al., “Raised serum TSH levels in patients with morbid obesity: is it enough to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism?” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 403–408, 2009.
- R. Sari, M. K. Balci, H. Altunbas, and U. Karayalcin, “The effect of body weight and weight loss on thyroid volume and function in obese women,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 258–262, 2003.
- G. De Pergola, A. Ciampolillo, S. Paolotti, P. Trerotoli, and R. Giorgino, “Free triiodothyronine and thyroid stimulating hormone are directly associated with waist circumference, independently of insulin resistance, metabolic parameters and blood pressure in overweight and obese women,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 265–269, 2007.
- T. Reinehr, “Obesity and thyroid function,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 165–171, 2010.
- T. Reinehr, G. de Sousa, and W. Andler, “Hyperthyrotropinemia in obese children is reversible after weight loss and is not related to lipids,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 3088–3091, 2006.
- S. Shalitin, M. Yackobovitch-Gavan, and M. Phillip, “Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in obese children and adolescents before and after weight reduction and its relation to other metabolic parameters,” Hormone Research, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 155–161, 2009.
- T. Reinehr and W. Andler, “Thyroid hormones before and after weight loss in obesity,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 320–323, 2002.
- L. H. Duntas and L. Wartofsky, “Cardiovascular risk and subclinical hypothyroidism: focus on lipids and new emerging risk factors. What is the evidence?” Thyroid, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1075–1084, 2007.
- N. Rodondi, D. Aujesky, E. Vittinghoff, J. Cornuz, and D. C. Bauer, “Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 541–551, 2006.
- J. P. Walsh, “Setpoints and susceptibility: do small differences in thyroid function really matter?” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 158–159, 2011.