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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 569831, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/569831
Review Article

Inflammatory Factors and Exercise in Chronic Kidney Disease

1School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
2Leicester Kidney Exercise Team, Leicester General Hospital, Gwendolen Road, Leicester LE5 4PW, UK
3Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Maurice Shock Medical Sciences Building, University Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK

Received 28 December 2012; Revised 19 April 2013; Accepted 19 April 2013

Academic Editor: Stephen L. Atkin

Copyright © 2013 Maurice Dungey et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Patients with chronic kidney disease frequently present with chronic elevations in markers of inflammation, a condition that appears to be exacerbated by disease progression and onset of haemodialysis. Systemic inflammation is interlinked with malnutrition and muscle protein wasting and is implicated in a number of morbidities including cardiovascular disease: the most common cause of mortality in this population. Research in the general population and other chronic disease cohorts suggests that an increase in habitual activity levels over a prolonged period may help redress basal increases in systemic inflammation. Furthermore, those populations with the highest baseline levels of systemic inflammation appear to have the greatest improvements from training. On the whole, the activity levels of the chronic kidney disease population reflect a sedentary lifestyle, indicating the potential for increasing physical activity and observing health benefits. This review explores the current literature investigating exercise and inflammatory factors in the chronic kidney disease population and then attempts to explain the contradictory findings and suggests where future research is required.