Table 1: Patient demographics and disease characteristics.

CharacteristicsGroup 1Group 2

Age in years N = 86N = 211
Mean (SD)76.2 (±11.3)75.8 (±10.5)
Gender ratio N = 86N = 211
(M/F)1.90.7
BMI (kg/m²)N = 86N = 207
Mean (SD)28.2 (±4.8)29.3 (±5.5)
BMI (kg/m²): N patients (%) withN = 86N = 211
 BMI < 25 25 (29%)44 (21%)
 25 ≤ BMI < 3035 (41%)81 (39%)
 BMI ≥ 3026 (30%)82 (40%)
GFR (mL/min/1.73 m²)N = 86N = 211
Mean (SD)51.9 (±4.3)29.41 (±13.0)
Time since CKD diagnosis: N patients (%)
 ≥1 yearN = 85
66 (77%),
N = 207
175 (83%)
 ≤1 yearN = 84 20 (23%)N = 203 36 (17%)
Proteinuria: N patients (%) with
 Microproteinuria39 (46%)124 (60%)
 Macroproteinuria7 (8%)38 (19%)
Time since diabetes diagnosis (years)N = 86N = 2011
Mean (SD)12.6 (±8.4)14.2 (±9.0)
HbA1cN = 76N = 197
Percentage (SD)7.2 (±1.1)7.1 (±1.3)
HbA1c < 7%N = 76N = 197
N patients (%) 36 (47%)106 (54%)

N:number of patients, BMI: body mass index; CKD: chronic kidney disease; GFR: glomerular filtration rate; SD: standard deviation.