- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 702095, 8 pages
Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a National Sample of Adolescent Population in the Middle East and North Africa: The CASPIAN III Study
1Osteoporosis Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Epidemiology, Chronic Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4Department of Public Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
5Bureau of Population, Family and School Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
6Department of Pediatrics, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
7Bureau of Health and Fitness, Ministry of Education and Training, Tehran, Iran
8Department of Pediatrics, Child Growth and Development Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Received 14 October 2012; Revised 25 December 2012; Accepted 25 December 2012
Academic Editor: Mario Maggi
Copyright © 2013 Patricia Khashayar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. W. F. Wilson, R. B. D'Agostino, H. Parise, L. Sullivan, and J. B. Meigs, “Metabolic syndrome as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 20, pp. 3066–3072, 2005.
- E. S. Ford, “Risks for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome: a summary of the evidence,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1769–1778, 2005.
- N. F. Butte, “Quantitative genetic analysis of the metabolic syndrome in Hispanic children,” Pediatric Research, vol. 58, pp. 1243–1248, 2005.
- J. S. Pankow, D. R. Jacobs Jr., J. Steinberger, A. Moran, and A. R. Sinaiko, “Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors in children of parents with the insulin resistance (Metabolic) syndrome,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 775–780, 2004.
- C. Lorenzo, OkoloiseM, K. Williams, M. P. Stern, and S. M. Haffner, “Themetabolic syndrome as predictor of type 2 diabetes: The San Antonio Heart Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, pp. 3153–3159, 2003.
- A. Delavari, M. H. Forouzanfar, S. Alikhani, A. Sharifian, and R. Kelishadi, “First nationwide study of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and optimal cutoff points of waist circumference in the middle east: The national survey of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases of Iran,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1092–1097, 2009.
- R. Kelishadi, G. Ardalan, R. Gheiratmand, K. Adeli, A. Delavari, and R. Majdzadeh, “Paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated anthropometric indices: The CASPIAN Study,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1625–1634, 2006.
- K. G. M. M. Alberti, P. Z. Zimmet, and J. E. Shaw, “The metabolic syndrome-a new world-wide definition from the International Diabetes Federation Consensus,” Lancet, vol. 366, pp. 1059–1062, 2005.
- E. S. Ford and C. Li, “Defining the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: will the real definition please stand up?” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2008.
- G. E. Duncan, S. M. Li, and X. H. Zhou, “Prevalence and trends of a metabolic syndrome phenotype among U.S. Adolescents, 1999-2000,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, pp. 2438–2443, 2004.
- R. Kelishadi, R. Heshmat, M. E. Motlagh, et al., “Methodology and early findings of the third survey of Caspian study: a national school-based surveillance of students’ high risk behaviors,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 3, pp. 394–401, 2012.
- World Health Organization, Expert Committee on Physical Status. Physical Status: the Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry, vol. 420 of WHO Technical Report 854, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995.
- K. M. Knowles, L. L. Paiva, S. E. Sanchez, et al., “Waist circumference, body mass index, and other measures of adiposity in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors among peruvian adults,” International Journal of Hypertension, vol. 2011, Article ID 931402, pp. 1–10, 2011.
- P. Zimmet, G. Alberti, F. Kaufman et al., “The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9579, pp. 2059–2061, 2007.
- P. Balagopal, S. D. De Ferranti, S. Cook et al., “Nontraditional risk factors and biomarkers for cardiovascular disease: mechanistic, research, and clinical considerations for youth: a scientific statement from the american heart association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 23, pp. 2749–2769, 2011.
- G. M. Reaven, “Role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1595–1607, 1988.
- R. Kahn, J. Buse, E. Ferrannini, and M. Stern, “The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal—Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2289–2304, 2005.
- S. M. Grundy, “Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 399–404, 2007.
- K. DuBose, E. Stewart, S. Charbonneau, M. Mayo, and J. Donnelly, “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in elementary school children,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 1005–1011, 2006.
- L. B. Andersen, N. Wedderkopp, H. S. Hansen, A. R. Cooper, and K. Froberg, “Biological cardiovascular risk factors cluster in Danish children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 363–367, 2003.
- M. Mehrkash, R. Kelishadi, S. Mohammadian, et al., “Obesity and metabolic syndrome among a representative sample of Iranian adolescents,” The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 756–763, 2012.
- J. A. Morrison, L. A. Friedman, P. Wang, and C. J. Glueck, “Metabolic syndrome in childhood predicts adult metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus 25 to 30 years later,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 2008.
- P. Schwandt, R. Kelishadi, R. Q. C. Ribeiro, G. M. Haas, and P. Poursafa, “A three-country study on the components of the metabolic syndrome in youths: The BIG Study,” International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 334–341, 2010.
- P. Greenland, “Critical questions about the metabolic syndrome,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 24, pp. 3675–3676, 2005.
- A. Misra, J. S. Wasir, and R. M. Pandey, “An evaluation of candidate definitions of the metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 398–403, 2005.
- W. D. Johnson, J. J. M. Kroon, F. L. Greenway, C. Bouchard, D. Ryan, and P. T. Katzmarzyk, “Prevalence of risk factors for metabolic syndrome in adolescents: national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES), 2001–2006,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 371–377, 2009.
- R. K. Golley, A. M. Magarey, K. S. Steinbeck, L. A. Baur, and L. A. Daniels, “Comparison of metabolic syndrome prevalence using six different definitions in overweight pre-pubertal children enrolled in a weight management study,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 853–860, 2006.
- E. Goodman, S. R. Daniels, J. A. Morrison, B. Huang, and L. M. Dolan, “Contrasting prevalence of and demographic disparities in the World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definitions of metabolic syndrome among adolescents,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 145, no. 4, pp. 445–451, 2004.
- S. Cook, P. Auinger, C. Li, and E. S. Ford, “Metabolic syndrome rates in United States Adolescents, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 165–170, 2008.
- M. Chinali, G. de Simone, M. J. Roman et al., “Cardiac markers of pre-clinical disease in adolescents with the metabolic syndrome. The Strong Heart Study,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 932–938, 2008.
- C. J. Jolliffe and I. Janssen, “Development of age-specific adolescent metabolic syndrome criteria that are linked to the adult treatment panel III and International Diabetes Federation Criteria,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 891–898, 2007.
- L. W. Ang, S. Ma, J. Cutter, S. K. Chew, C. E. Tan, and E. S. Tai, “The metabolic syndrome in Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians: factor analysis of data from the 1998 Singapore National Health Survey,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 53–62, 2005.
- R. Kelishadi, G. Ardalan, K. Adeli et al., “Factor analysis of cardiovascular risk clustering in pediatric metabolic syndrome: CASPIAN study,” Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 208–215, 2007.
- M. Lambert, G. Paradis, J. O'Loughlin, E. E. Delvin, J. A. Hanley, and E. Levy, “Insulin resistance syndrome in a representative sample of children and adolescents from Quebec, Canada,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 833–841, 2004.
- E. Goodman, L. M. Dolan, J. A. Morrison, and S. R. Daniels, “Factor analysis of clustered cardiovascular risks in adolescence: obesity is the predominant correlate of risk among youth,” Circulation, vol. 111, no. 15, pp. 1970–1977, 2005.
- M. L. Cruz, M. J. Weigensberg, T. T. K. Huang, G. Ball, G. Q. Shaibi, and M. I. Goran, “The metabolic syndrome in overweight hispanic youth and the role of insulin sensitivity,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 108–113, 2004.
- M. Caceres, C. G. Teran, S. Rodriguez, and M. Medina, “Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity,” BMC Pediatrics, vol. 8, article 31, 2008.
- M. Agirbasli, S. Cakir, S. Ozme, and G. Ciliv, “Metabolic syndrome in Turkish children and adolescents,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1002–1006, 2006.
- A. P. Ferreira, C. E. R. Oliveira, and N. M. França, “Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese children: the relationship with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),” Jornal de Pediatria, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2007.
- C. E. Irwin, “Somatic growth and development during adolescent,” in Pediatrics, A. M. Rudolph, Ed., p. 39, Appleton & Lange, East Norwalk, Conn, USA, 1991.
- R. Weiss, J. Dziura, T. S. Burgert, et al., “Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, pp. 2362–2374, 2004.
- G. Csábi, K. Török, D. Molnár, and S. Jeges, “Presence of metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in obese children,” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 159, no. 1-2, pp. 91–94, 2000.
- A. Onat, K. Ceyhan, Ö. Başar, B. Erer, S. Toprak, and V. Sansoy, “Metabolic syndrome: major impact on coronary risk in a population with low cholesterol levels—a prospective and cross-sectional evaluation,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 165, no. 2, pp. 285–292, 2002.
- R. Kelishadi, R. Gheiratmand, G. Ardalan, et al., “Association of anthropometric indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors among children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 340–348, 2007.
- C. L. Davis, B. Flickinger, D. Moore, R. Bassali, S. D. Baxter, and Z. Yin, “Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren in a rural Georgia community,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 330, no. 2, pp. 53–59, 2005.
- R. Kelishadi, G. Ardalan, R. Gheiratmand, and A. Ramezani, “Is family history of premature cardiovascular diseases appropriate for detection of dyslipidemic children in population-based preventive medicine programs? CASPIAN Study,” Pediatric Cardiology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 729–736, 2006.
- R. Kelishadi, “Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 62–76, 2007.
- A. Misra and N. K. Vikram, “Metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: problems in definition, and ethnicity-related determinants,” Diabetes & Metabolic Diseases, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 121–126, 2007.
- C. M. Alexander, P. B. Landsman, S. M. Teutsch, and S. M. Haffner, “NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1210–1214, 2003.
- E. S. Ford, W. H. Giles, and W. H. Dietz, “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 3, pp. 356–359, 2002.