Table 1: Study design parameters and characteristics.

Author, yearStudy designNumber of
patients
Patient characteristics
and infertility factor
GM-CSF
concentration
Control
medium
ART

Sjöblom et al., 1999 [3]Prospective
Observational
Australia
99
(2–4 cell
embryos)
N/A2 ng/mL20 μL microdrops
IVF-50/S2 with
insulin/G1.2 and
G2.2 with
reduced
glutamine, EDTA
and phosphate
IVF
GnRH agonist,
150–225 IU/day
r-FSH
10.000 IU hCG

Kim et al., 2001 [4]Prospective
Observational
South Korea
154
(patients)
Women aged 28–39.6 yrs2 ng/mL10 μL microdrops
of modified P-1
IVF/ICSI

Sjöblom et al., 2001 [5]RCT
Australia
62 (2–4 cell
embryos)
N/A2 ng/mL20 μL drops of
Sydney IVF
Cleavage/1 mL Blastocyst Cook IVF
IVF/ICSI

Shapiro et al., 2003 [6]RCT
USA
72 patients
with ≥2 pn oocytes
N/AN/AQuinn’s Advantage
Protein Plus
IVF

Agerholm et al., 2010 [7]RCT
Denmark
73 women
donating 86
oocytes
Women aged 25–37 yrs
Male factor:   
Tubal factor:   
Endometriosis:   
PCOS/endocrine:   
Unexplained:   
Tubal insemination using donor
Spermatozoa with proven fertility and normal karyotype
2 ng/mLBlast Assist
System
Medium 1
IVF/ICSI
Long protocols
(GnRH agonists)
and short
protocols (GnRH
antagonists)

Origio website, 2011 [8]RCT
11 Danish
3 Swedish
centers
1319
included
1322
enrolled
(patients)
Women with
>1 miscarriage
21–35 d cycle
aged 25–39 years
IVF/ICSI indications
No oocyte donation
2 ng/mLMedia without
GM-CSF
IVF/ICSI
standard agonist/antagonist
FSH 100–300 IU