Table 2: Outcome parameters: GM-CSF versus control.

Embryo cell number (72 hrs)Normal embryo development on day 3Embryos reaching blastocyst stageHatching initiation of blastocystsTotal cell number in blastocysts
(day 5)
Mitotic indexMean number of apoptotic cells in blastocyst/TUNEL clustersEmbryos reaching morula stageClinical pregnancy rateChromosomal constitution of embryosImplantation rateLive birth rate

Sjöblom et al., 1999 [3]76% versus 30%78% versus 47%35% higher with GM-CSF80% increase in GM-CSF treatment
Kim et al., 2001 [4]35% versus 24%
Sjöblom et al., 2001 [5] versus   
versus
Shapiro et al., 2003 [6]6.1 versus 5.850% increase in GM-CSF group47% versus 50%32% versus 25%
Agerholm et al., 2010 [7]50% versus 28.1%34.8% versus 33.3%
Origio website, 2011 [8]24.5% versus 17%29.6% versus 23.1% (per cycle)
22.3% versus 17.4% (per embryo transfer)