Table 1: Demographics and clinical characteristics of the study subjects.

Factor measuredPremenopausal
( )
Perimenopausal
( )
Postmenopausal
( )

Age (years)40.8 ± 3.5048.0 ± 2.9559.7 ± 7.30
Height (cm)156.2 ± 5.38b154.2 ± 5.05c151.9 ± 4.54
Weight (kg)56.9 ± 7.38c57.1 ± 8.03c54.3 ± 8.46
BMI (kg/m2)23.3 ± 2.6824.0 ± 3.0323.5 ± 3.34
OPG (pmol/L)a2.67 ± 1.86b4.11 ± 1.964.40 ± 1.85
TGF-β1 (μg/L)a39.0 ± 1.60b27.1 ± 1.6724.0 ± 1.52
TGF-β2 (μg/L)a11.5 ± 1.28b13.0 ± 1.3614.3 ± 1.32

BMI: body mass index, OPG: osteoprotegerin, and TGF-β: transforming growth factor-beta.
aValues are geometric mean ± SD.
b –0.000 compared with perimenopausal and postmenopausal.
c –0.000 compared with postmenopausal.