- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 740419, 7 pages
Different Impacts of Metabolic Syndrome Components on Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes
1Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan
2Linsen (Chinese Medicine) Branch, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Received 10 September 2012; Accepted 14 January 2013
Academic Editor: Atheline Major-Pedersen
Copyright © 2013 Chung-Hua Hsu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Tuomilehto, J. Lindström, J. G. Eriksson et al., “Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 344, no. 18, pp. 1343–1350, 2001.
- D. A. Lawlor, G. D. Smith, and S. Ebrahim, “Life course influences on insulin resistance: findings from the British women's heart and health study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 97–103, 2003.
- C. Weyer, T. Funahashi, S. Tanaka et al., “Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1930–1935, 2001.
- G. M. Reaven, “Role of insulin resistance in human disease,” Diabetes, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1595–1607, 1988.
- R. H. Eckel, S. M. Grundy, and P. Z. Zimmet, “The metabolic syndrome,” Lancet, vol. 365, no. 9468, pp. 1415–1428, 2005.
- P. Zimmet, D. Magliano, Y. Matsuzawa, G. Alberti, and J. Shaw, “The metabolic syndrome: a global public health problem and a new definition,” Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 295–300, 2005.
- K. G. M. M. Alberti, P. Zimmet, and J. Shaw, “The metabolic syndrome—a new worldwide definition,” Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9491, pp. 1059–1062, 2005.
- P. Ilanne-Parikka, J. G. Eriksson, J. Lindström et al., “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components: findings from a Finnish general population sample and the Diabetes Prevention Study cohort,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 2135–2140, 2004.
- C. M. Alexander, P. B. Landsman, S. M. Teutsch, and S. M. Haffner, “NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1210–1214, 2003.
- G. Bruno, F. Merletti, A. Biggeri et al., “Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Casale Monferrato study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2689–2694, 2004.
- F. Relimpio, M. A. Martinez-Brocca, A. Leal-Cerro et al., “Variability in the presence of the metabolic syndrome in Type 2 diabetic patients attending a diabetes clinic: influences of age and gender,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 135–142, 2004.
- E. Bonora, G. Targher, G. Formentini et al., “Metabolic syndrome is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic subjects: prospective data from the verona diabetes complications study,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 52–58, 2004.
- L. A. Costa, L. H. Canani, H. R. K. Lisbôa, G. S. Tres, and J. L. Gross, “Aggregation of features of the metabolic syndrome is associated with increased prevalence of chronic complications in Type 2 diabetes,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 252–255, 2004.
- Y. J. Lee and J. C. R. Tsai, “ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism associated with 1998 World Health Organization definition of metabolic syndrome in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1002–1008, 2002.
- C. F. Semenkovich, “Insulin resistance and atherosclerosis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 1813–1822, 2006.
- H. N. Ginsberg, “Review: efficacy and mechanisms of action of statins in the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 91, pp. 383–392, 2006.
- M. K. Cavaghan, D. A. Ehrmann, and K. S. Polonsky, “Interactions between insulin resistance and insulin secretion in the development of glucose intolerance,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 329–333, 2000.
- E. Bonora, S. Kiechl, J. Willeit et al., “Prevalence of insulin resistance in metabolic disorders: the Bruneck Study,” Diabetes, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 1643–1649, 1998.
- E. Ferrannini, G. Buzzigoli, R. Bonadonna et al., “Insulin resistance in essential hypertension,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 6, pp. 350–357, 1988.
- E. J. Diamantopoulos, E. Andreadis, G. Tsourous et al., “Insulin resistance and blood pressure circadian variation in an obese hypertensive population,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 625–630, 2006.
- Z. T. Bloomgarden, “Inflammation, atherosclerosis, and aspects of insulin action,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2312–2319, 2005.
- T. McLaughlin, F. Abbasi, C. Lamendola et al., “Differentiation between obesity and insulin resistance in the association with C-reactive protein,” Circulation, vol. 106, no. 23, pp. 2908–2912, 2002.
- M. Cnop, M. J. Landchild, J. Vidal et al., “The concurrent accumulation of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat explains the association between insulin resistance and plasma leptin concentrations: distinct metabolic effects of two fat compartments,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1005–1015, 2002.
- D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, and A. S. Rudenski, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985.
- E. Bonora, G. Formentini, F. Calcaterra et al., “HOMA-estimated insulin resistance is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic subjects: prospective data from the Verona Diabetes Complications Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 1135–1141, 2002.
- J. J. Nolan, B. Ludvik, P. Beerdsen, M. Joyce, and J. Olefsky, “Improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese subjects treated with troglitazone,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 331, no. 18, pp. 1188–1193, 1994.
- F. Pistrosch, J. Passauer, S. Fischer, K. Fuecker, M. Hanefeld, and P. Gross, “In type 2 diabetes, rosiglitazone therapy for insulin resistance ameliorates endothelial dysfunction independent of glucose control,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 484–490, 2004.
- C. J. Bailey, “Treating insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes with metformin and thiazolidinediones,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 675–691, 2005.
- J. Noble, M. O. Baerlocher, and J. Silverberg, “Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Role of thiazolidinediones,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 51, pp. 683–687, 2005.
- Z. T. Bloomgarden, “Developments in diabetes and insulin resistance,” Diabetes Care, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 161–167, 2006.
- S. E. Shoelson, J. Lee, and A. B. Goldfine, “Inflammation and insulin resistance.,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, pp. 1793–1801, 2006.
- R. Kahn, J. Buse, E. Ferrannini, and M. Stern, “The metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal—Joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2289–2304, 2005.
- A. Festa, R. D'Agostino Jr., G. Howard, L. Mykkänen, R. P. Tracy, and S. M. Haffner, “Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study (IRAS),” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2000.
- M. B. Schulze, I. Shai, E. B. Rimm, T. Li, N. Rifai, and F. B. Hu, “Adiponectin and future coronary heart disease events among men with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 534–539, 2005.
- M. S. Farvid, T. W. K. Ng, D. C. Chan, P. H. R. Barrett, and G. F. Watts, “Association of adiponectin and resistin with adipose tissue compartments, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 406–413, 2005.
- J. P. Whitehead, A. A. Richards, I. J. Hickman, G. A. Macdonald, and J. B. Prins, “Adiponectin—a key adipokine in the metabolic syndrome,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 264–280, 2006.
- F. Jaleel, A. Jaleel, J. Aftab, and M. A. Rahman, “Relationship between adiponectin, glycemic control and blood lipids in diabetic type 2 postmenopausal women with and without complication of ischemic heart disease,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 370, no. 1-2, pp. 76–81, 2006.
- K. Hotta, T. Funahashi, and Y. Arita, “et al. Plasma concentractions of a ovel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 20, pp. 1595–1599, 2000.
- M. B. Schulze, E. B. Rimm, I. Shai, N. Rifai, and F. B. Hu, “Relationship between adiponectin and glycemic control, blood lipids, and inflammatory markers in men with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1680–1687, 2004.
- G. K. Shetty, P. A. Economides, E. S. Horton, C. S. Mantzoros, and A. Veves, “Circulating adiponectin and resistin levels in relation to metabolic factors, inflammatory markers, and vascular reactivity in diabetic patients and subjects at risk for diabetes,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 2450–2457, 2004.
- C. H. Hsieh, C. Z. Wu, F. C. Hsiao et al., “The impact of metabolic syndrome on insulin sensitivity, glucose sensitivity, and acute insulin response after glucose load in early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: Taiwan Early-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study,” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1615–1621, 2008.
- H. Wahrenberg, K. Hertel, B. M. Leijonhufvud, L. G. Persson, E. Toft, and P. Arner, “Use of waist circumference to predict insulin resistance: retrospective study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7504, pp. 1363–1364, 2005.
- B. A. Reeder, A. Senthilselvan, J. P. Després et al., “The association of cardiovascular disease risk factors with abdominal obesity in Canada,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 157, supplement 1, pp. S39–S45, 1997.
- M. C. Pouliot, J. P. Despres, S. Lemieux et al., “Waist circumference and abdominal sagittal diameter: best simple anthropometric indexes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue accumulation and related cardiovascular risk in men and women,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 460–468, 1994.
- L. B. Tankó, Y. Z. Bagger, P. Alexandersen, P. J. Larsen, and C. Christiansen, “Peripheral adiposity exhibits an independent dominant antiatherogenic effect in elderly women,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 12, pp. 1626–1631, 2003.
- V. T. Samuel, K. F. Petersen, and G. I. Shulman, “Lipid-induced insulin resistance: unravelling the mechanism,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9733, pp. 2267–2277, 2010.