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International Journal of Endocrinology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 902513, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/902513
Review Article

Bone Mineral Density and Osteoporosis after Preterm Birth: The Role of Early Life Factors and Nutrition

1Child Health, Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK
2Orthopaedic Department, Wansbeck General Hospital, Woodhorn Lane, Ashington, Northumberland NE63 9JJ, UK
3Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
4Newcastle Neonatal Service, Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP, UK
5Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK

Received 30 December 2012; Accepted 24 March 2013

Academic Editor: Ling-Qing Yuan

Copyright © 2013 Claire L. Wood et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.