Table 1: Summary of key papers on BMD and osteoporosis after preterm birth.

AuthorYearCohort typeStudy designFindings

Rigo et al. [9] 2007Preterm and termReview Greater loss of BMD in preterms than in terms during neonatal period. Maternal vitamin D exposure affects bone health in the newborn.
Bowden et al. [25]1999Preterm and termRetrospective cross-sectionalPreterm infants have reduced bone mineral mass in conjunction with reduced growth and hip BMD aged 8 years.
Hovi et al. [31]2009LBW infantsCohort VLBW young adults have reduced peak BMD than their term peers.
Ahmad et al. [26] 2010Preterm and termProspectivePreterms had lower body weight, length and BMD at term compared to term-born infants.
Abou Samra et al. [28] 2009Preterm and term Cross-sectionalTerm males have greater bone size and mass than preterm males at follow-up aged 7 years.
Backström et al. [30] 2005Preterm and termCross-sectionalPreterms have smaller cross-sectional bone dimensions in adulthood than terms.
Dalziel et al. [35] 2006PretermRCT with longitudinal follow-upAntenatal steroids did not affect peak bone mass. LBW and short gestation predicted reduced adult height. Slow fetal growth predicted lower bone mass.
Fewtrell et al. [36] 2000PretermLongitudinalBone mass at 8–12 years is related to current size. Linear growth important in maximising bone mass.
Fewtrell et al. [37] 2009PretermLongitudinalInfant diet does not affect peak bone mass.
Breukhoven et al. [38] 2011PretermCross-sectionalPreterm birth does not affect BMD in young adults.