Table 1: Demographic information and laboratory investigations of the T2DM patients.

Characteristics Mean ± SD/ (%)
T2DM patientsHealthy controls

Age52.3 ± 11.535 ± 7
Sex
 Male28 (49)20 (67%)
 Female29 (51)10 (33%)
Disease duration
 ≥5 years 51 (89.4)NA
 <5 years6 (10.6)
Height158.8 ± 7.8165 ± 10
Weight 76.8 ± 13.873 ± 10.2
BMI30.4 ± 5.2NA
HbA1c8.2 ± 1.4NA
CRP11.1 ± 24.6NA
Vitamin D44.2 ± 20.2NA
Hypertension 38 (67)0
TC5.1 ± 1.1NA
LDL3.1 ± 1.0NA
HDL1.2 ± 0.4NA
TG1.6 ± 1.1NA
Current smokers 2 (3.5)0
Treatment (%)NA
 Insulin12 (21)
 Oral
  (Metformin/sulfonylurea)27 (47)
  (Metformin only)4 (7)
 Oral + insulin9 (16)
 Diet + exercise5 (9)

T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus; BMI: body mass index; HbA1c: glycated haemoglobin; CRP: C-reactive protein; TC: total cholesterol; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; TG: triglycerides. NA: not available.