Table 1: Outcomes of experimental coevolutionary studies using bacteriophage and their bacterial hosts. In this table, the number of coevolutionary cycles and final states of laboratory experimental studies using bacteriophage are documented. Only those studies that did not explicitly manipulate experimental conditions (e.g., resource availability, gene flow) are presented; thus, this is not a comprehensive analysis of all bacteriophage coevolution studies.

HostParasiteTypeDurationCyclesaOutcomeReference

Escherichia coli T2Chemostat19 days1-2?Phage and host persistencePaynter and Bungay, 1969 [69]
E. coli T4Chemostat75 days0.5Host resistancebHorne, 1970 [33]
Plectonema boryanum LPP-1Quasi-continuous80 days1-2?Host resistanceb Cowlishaw and Mrsa, 1975 [25]
P. boryanum LPP-1Chemostat90 days2.5Host resistancebCannon et al., 1976 [26]
E. coli T7Chemostat68 days1.5Host resistancebChao et al., 1977 [28]
P. boryanum LPP-DUN1Chemostat60 days2.5?Phage and host persistence, partial host resistanceBarnet et al., 1981 [29]
Aphanothece stagnina Aph-1Chemostat60 days2.5Host resistancebBarnet et al., 1981 [29]
E. coli T2Chemostat12 days1.5Host resistancebLenski and Levin, 1985 [30]
E. coli T4Chemostat21 days0.5Host resistancebLenski and Levin, 1985 [30]
E. coli T5Chemostat12 days0.5Phage extinctionLenski and Levin, 1985 [30]
E. coli T7Chemostat 12 days1.5Host resistancebLenski and Levin, 1985 [30]
E. coli λChemostat135 days1Phage and host persistence, partial host resistanceSpanakis and Horne, 1987 [31]
E. coli λChemostat12 days0.5Host resistancebSchrag and Mittler, 1996 [68]
E. coli Serial transfer7 days0.550% of lineages extinct after 7 days, all assumed extinct after 15 daysSchrag and Mittler, 1996 [68]
E. coli T1XChemostat12 days0.5Host resistancebSchrag and Mittler, 1996 [68]
E. coli Serial transfer 7 days0.5Phage extinctionSchrag and Mittler, 1996 [68]
P. fluorescens Φ2Serial transfer100 daysMultiplePhage and host persistenceBuckling and Rainey, 2002 [53]
E. coli PP01Chemostat8 daysMultiplePhage and host persistenceMizoguchi et al., 2003 [66]
Pseudomonas phaseolicola Φ6Serial transfer21 days0.55/8 phage lines extinct, others persist on partially resistant hosts Lythgoe and Chao, 2003 [70]
Vibrio cholerae JSF4Chemostat15 days0.5Host resistancebWei et al., 2010 [64]
V. cholerae B phageChemostat6 days0.5Host resistancebWei et al., 2011 [63]
V. cholerae T phageChemostat25 days0.5Host resistancebWei et al., 2011 [63]
E. coli QβChemostat54 days2Phage and host persistenceKashiwagi and Yomo, 2011 [71]
Synechococcus sp. WH7803 RIM8Chemostat167 days>4Phage and host persistenceMarston et al., 2012 [72]

aThe evolution of host resistance to phage is considered a half cycle. A full cycle occurs when the appearance of resistant host is countered by a host range mutant.
bContinued persistence of sensitive bacteria in spatial refuges (i.e., wall population) allowed low-level phage persistence.