About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 639635, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/639635
Research Article

Modeling Extinction Risk of Endemic Birds of Mainland China

Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4

Received 5 July 2013; Revised 20 October 2013; Accepted 4 November 2013

Academic Editor: Hirohisa Kishino

Copyright © 2013 Youhua Chen. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Rahbek and R. K. Colwell, “Biodiversity: species loss revisited,” Nature, vol. 473, no. 7347, pp. 288–289, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. J. Davies, G. F. Smith, D. U. Bellstedt et al., “Extinction risk and diversification are linked in a plant biodiversity hotspot,” PLoS Biology, vol. 9, no. 5, Article ID e1000620, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. D. Barnosky, N. Matzke, S. Tomiya et al., “Has the Earth's sixth mass extinction already arrived?” Nature, vol. 471, no. 7336, pp. 51–57, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. B. Wake and V. T. Vredenburg, “Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 11466–11473, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. May, J. Lawton, and N. Stork, “Assessing extinction rates,” in Extinction Rates, J. Lawton and R. May, Eds., pp. 1–24, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1995.
  6. D. P. Faith, “Threatened species and the potential loss of phylogenetic diversity: conservation scenarios based on estimated extinction probabilities and phylogenetic risk analysis,” Conservation Biology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1461–1470, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Zmihorski, J. Dziarska-Palac, T. Sparks, and P. Tryjanowski, “Ecological correlates of the popularity of birds and butterflies in internet information resources,” Oikos, vol. 122, pp. 183–190, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. P. Prokop and J. Fancovicova, “Does colour matter? The influence of animal warning coloration on human emotions and willingness to protect them,” Animal Conservation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 458–466, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. Y. H. Chen, “Prioritizing avian conservation areas in China by hotspot scoring, heuristics and optimisation,” Acta Ornithologica, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 119–128, 2007. View at Scopus
  10. F. He, “Area-based assessment of extinction risk,” Ecology, vol. 93, pp. 974–980, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. R. E. Ricklefs, “Global variation in the diversification rate of passerine birds,” Ecology, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 2468–2478, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. B. Phillimore, C. D. L. Orme, R. G. Davies et al., “Biogeographical basis of recent phenotypic divergence among birds: a global study of subspecies richness,” Evolution, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 942–957, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Y. H. Chen, “Avian biogeography and conservation on Hainan Island, China,” Zoological Science, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Cooper, R. P. Freckleton, and W. Jetz, “Phylogenetic conservatism of environmental niches in mammals,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 278, no. 1716, pp. 2384–2391, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Tucker, M. Cadotte, T. Davies, and T. Rebelo, “Incorporating geographical and evolutionary rarity into conservation prioritization,” Conservation Biology, vol. 26, pp. 593–601, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. Y. Chen, “Conservation priority for endemic birds of mainland China based on a phylogenetic framework,” Chinese Birds, vol. 4, pp. 248–253, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. B. Daru, K. Yessoufou, L. Mankga, and T. Davies, “A global trend towards the loss of evolutionarily unique species in mangrove ecosystems,” PLoS One, vol. 8, Article ID e66686, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. K. Yessoufou, B. Daru, and T. Davies, “Phylogenetic patterns of extinction risk in the Eastern Arc Ecosystems, an African biodiversity hotspot,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 10, Article ID e47082, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. Y. Chen, “A phylogenetic subclade analysis of range sizes of endemic woody see plant species of China: trait conservatism, diversification rates and evolutionary models,” Journal of Systematics and Evolution, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 590–600, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. L. J. Harmon, J. B. Losos, T. Jonathan Davies et al., “Early bursts of body size and shape evolution are rare in comparative data,” Evolution, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 2385–2396, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. E. K. Evans, S. A. Smith, R. S. Flynn, and M. J. Donoghue, “Climate, niche evolution, and diversification of the “bird-cage” evening primroses (Oenothera, sections Anogra and Kleinia),” American Naturalist, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 225–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Chen and J. Bi, “Biogeography and hotspots of amphibian species of China: implications to reserve selection and conservation,” Current Science, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 480–489, 2007. View at Scopus
  23. F. Lei, J. Lu, Y. Liu, Y. Qu, and Z. Yin, “Endemic bird species to China and their distribution,” Current Zoology, vol. 48, pp. 599–610, 2002.
  24. Y. Wang, S. Chen, and P. Ding, “Testing multiple assembly rule models in avian communities on islands of an inundated lake, Zhejiang Province, China,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1330–1344, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. Lei and T. Lu, China Endemic Birds, Science Press, Beijing, China, 2006.
  26. F. M. Lei, G. A. Wei, H. F. Zhao, Z. H. Yin, and J. L. Lu, “China subregional avian endemism and biodiversity conservation,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 1119–1130, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Y. Zhang, “Endemic birds of China,” Bulletin of Biology, vol. 39, pp. 22–25, 2004.
  28. W. Jetz, H. Thomas, J. Joy, K. Hartmann, and A. Mooers, “The global diversity of birds in space and time,” Nature, vol. 491, pp. 444–448, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Sukumaran and M. T. Holder, “DendroPy: a Python library for phylogenetic computing,” Bioinformatics, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1569–1571, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Sanderson, “Estimating absolute rates of molecular evolution and divergence times: a penalized likelihood approach,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 101–109, 2002. View at Scopus
  31. L. J. Harmon, J. A. Schulte II, A. Larson, and J. B. Losos, “Tempo and mode of evolutionary radiation in iguanian lizards,” Science, vol. 301, no. 5635, pp. 961–964, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. J. Harmon, J. T. Weir, C. D. Brock, R. E. Glor, and W. Challenger, “GEIGER: investigating evolutionary radiations,” Bioinformatics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 129–131, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R Development Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2011, http://www.R-project.org.
  34. H. Akaike, “Information theory as an extension of the maximum likelihood principle,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Information Theory, B. Petrov and F. Csaki, Eds., pp. 276–281, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, Hungary, 1974.
  35. A. Purvis, P. M. Agapow, J. L. Gittleman, and G. M. Mace, “Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5464, pp. 328–330, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. J. Russell, T. M. Brooks, M. M. Mckinney, and C. Gregory Anderson, “Present and future taxonomic selectivity in bird and mammal extinctions,” Conservation Biology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1365–1376, 1998. View at Scopus
  37. T. A. Heath, S. M. Hedtke, and D. M. Hillis, “Taxon sampling and the accuracy of phylogenetic analyses,” Journal of Systematics and Evolution, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 239–257, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Poe, “Sensitivity of phylogeny estimation to taxonomic sampling,” Systematic Biology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 18–31, 1998. View at Scopus