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Figure 4: Speciation is only observed when there is strong disruptive selection and strong assortative mating (shaded region). For comparison, the crossed lines indicates the range and mean (intersection) of these parameters measured in single-species lake populations of stickleback [23, 24]. Parameter values are population size = 500, number of loci = 40, and initial allele frequency = 0.5. Disruptive selection and assortative mating were varied systematically from 𝛾 = 0 to 0.5 and 𝑟 = 0 to 0.95, in increments of 0.025. This parameter space falls well within empirically justifiable values based on meta-analyses [31, 33]. Ten replicate simulations were run for each factorial combination of parameters. Dark shading indicates regions of parameter space in which speciation was observed at least once.