Table 3: Details of behavioral and ecological variation among taxa, specifically as variation relates to potential barriers to gene flow; see Figure 4 for a graphical interpretation of these traits in relation to gene flow. The descriptions of male mate discrimination refer to preferences of males for females of the other taxa. Details for larval performance refer to performance on the hosts of the other taxa relative to performance of the other taxa on those same plants.

L. idasHybrid speciesL. melissa

Egg adhesionYesNoYes
Preference for natal host(s)ModerateHighLow to high
Male mate discriminationAgainst L. melissa and hybrid speciesAgainst L. idas None
VoltinismUnivoltineUnivoltineMultivoltine
Larval performancePoor on hosts of L. melissa; superior on host of hybrid speciesPoor on hosts of both L. melissa and L. idas Equivalent on hosts of L. idas and superior on host of hybrid species

Further information on specific behavioral and ecological variables (other than larval performance, reported here) can be found as follows: egg adhesion [23], preference for natal hosts [17, 19, 22], male mate discrimination [16], and voltinism [23].