Figure 1: Schematic diagram of field plot layout representing one block (0.80 ha). In each block, three distinct areas were designated as habitat types: forest edge (near the edges), center (away from edges), and in the vicinity of established plantings of 10yearold Pinus virginiana (pine plots). Six plots (4 m × 3 m) were established in each habitat type, each containing 20 chestnut seeds. There were a total of three blocks, each block comprised of 18 plots. In total, there were 54 plots containing a total of 1080 seeds. 
