About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 359892, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/359892
Review Article

Biodiversity of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Tropical to Temperate Australia

Department of Botany, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia

Received 19 September 2011; Revised 25 December 2011; Accepted 17 January 2012

Academic Editor: Panos V. Petrakis

Copyright © 2012 Raymond L. Specht. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. L. Specht, “Development of ecosystem research,” International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Ecology, vol. 2011, Article ID 897578, 20 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. A. G. Tansley, “The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms,” Ecology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 284–307, 1935. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. L. Crocker, “Soil genesis and the pedogenic factors,” The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 139–168, 1952. View at Scopus
  4. R. L. Specht, “Phosphorus toxicity and pollution: a threat to our Gondwanan heritage,” Ecological Management & Restoration, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 228–230, 2001. View at Scopus
  5. R. L. Specht and A. Specht, Australian Plant Communities. Dynamics of Structure, Growth and Biodiversity, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1999.
  6. R. L. Specht and P. W. Rundel, “Sclerophylly and foliar nutrient status of mediterranean-climate plant communities in southern Australia,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 459–474, 1990. View at Scopus
  7. R. L. Specht and A. Specht, “The ratio of foliar nitrogen to foliar phosphorus: a determinant of leaf attributes and height in life-forms of subtropical and tropical plant communities,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 527–538, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. R. Stewart, C. A. Gracia, E. E. Hegarty, and R. L. Specht, “Nitrate reductase activity and chlorophyll content in sun leaves of subtropical Australian closed-forest (rainforest) and open-forest communities,” Oecologia, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 544–551, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. A. Prescott and R. L. Pendleton, “Laterite and lateritic soils,” Commonwealth Bureau of Soil Science & Technology Communication, no. 47, 1952.
  10. J. C. Menaut, R. Barbault, P. Lavelle, and M. Lepage, “African savannas: biological systems of humification and mineralization,” in Ecology and Management of the World’s Savannas, J. C. Tothill and J. J. Mott, Eds., pp. 14–33, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia, 1985.
  11. K. H. Northcote, et al., Atlas of Australian Soils, Sheets 1–10, C.S.I.R.O. (Aust.) & Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1960–1968.
  12. A. G. Smith and J. C. Briden, Mesozoic and Caenozoic Palaeocontinental Maps, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1977.
  13. I. C. Cookson, “Pollen content of Tertiary deposits,” Australian Journal of Science, vol. 7, pp. 149–150, 1945.
  14. I. C. Cookson, “Pollens of Nothofagus Blume from Tertiary deposits in Australia,” Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, vol. 71, pp. 49–63, 1946.
  15. I. C. Cookson, “Identification of Tertiary pollen grains with those of New Guinea and New Caledonian beeches,” Nature, vol. 170, no. 4316, p. 127, 1952. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. C. Cookson, “Fossil pollen grains of Nothofagus from Australia,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. 71, pp. 25–39, 1959.
  17. H. A. Martin, “The Tertiary stratigraphy and palynology of the Murray Basin in New South Wales. 1. The Hay-Balranald-Wakool Districts,” Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, vol. 110, pp. 41–47, 1977.
  18. H. A. Martin, “Evolution of the Australian flora and vegetation through the Tertiary: evidence from pollen,” Alcheringa, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 181–202, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. H. A. Martin, “The Tertiary flora,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 391–406, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  20. H. A. Martin, “The Cainozoic history of the vegetation and climate of the Lachlan River Region, New South Wales,” Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, vol. 116, pp. 3–18, 1987.
  21. H. A. Martin, “Tertiary stratigraphic palynology and palaeoclimate of the inland river systems of New South Wales,” in The Cainozoic in Australia: A Re-appraisal of the Evidence, M. A. J. Williams, P. De Deckker, and A. P. Kershaw, Eds., No. 18, pp. 181–194, Geological Society of Australia, 1991.
  22. H. A. Martin, “The use of ecological tolerances for the reconstruction of Tertiary palaeoclimates,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 475–492, 1997. View at Scopus
  23. H. A. Martin, “Tertiary climatic evolution and the development of aridity in Australia,” Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, vol. 1998, no. 119, pp. 115–136, 1998. View at Scopus
  24. H. A. Martin, “Late Cretaceous-Cainozoic palynology of the Poonarunna no. 1 well, Central Australia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 122, no. 3-4, pp. 89–138, 1998. View at Scopus
  25. H. A. Martin, “Cenozoic climatic change and the development of the arid vegetation in Australia,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 533–563, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. E. Dettmann, “The Cretaceous flora,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 355–375, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  27. D. C. Christophel, “Tertiary megafossil floras of Australia as indicators of floristic associations and palaeoclimate,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 377–390, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  28. M. E. Dettmann and D. M. Jarzen, “Pollen evidence for Late Cretaceous differentiation of Proteaceae in southern polar forests,” Canadian Journal of Botany, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 901–906, 1991. View at Scopus
  29. R. L. Specht, M. E. Dettmann, and D. M. Jarzen, “Community associations and structure in the Late Cretaceous vegetation of southeast Australasia and Antarctica,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 94, no. 1–4, pp. 283–309, 1992. View at Scopus
  30. L. A. S. Johnson and B. G. Briggs, “Three old southern families—Myrtaceae, Proteaceae and Restionaceae,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 472–469, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  31. H. T. Clifford and B. K. Simon, “The biogeography of Australian grasses,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 537–554, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  32. H. A. Martin and P. A. Gadek, “Identification of Eucalyptus spathulata pollen and its presence in the fossil record,” Memoirs of the Association of Australian Palaeontology, vol. 5, pp. 311–327, 1988.
  33. M. Pole, “Early Miocene floras from central Otago, New Zealand,” Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 121–125, 1989. View at Scopus
  34. M. Pole, “Early Miocene flora of the Manuherikia Group, New Zealand. 7. Myrtaceae, including Eucalyptus,” Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 313–328, 1993. View at Scopus
  35. R. S. Hill, “The history of selected Australian taxa,” in History of Australian Vegetation: Cretaceous to Recent, R. S. Hill, Ed., pp. 390–419, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1994.
  36. M. E. Dettmann, D. T. Pocknall, E. J. Romero, and Maria del Carmen Zamaloa, Nothofagidites Erdtman ex Potonié, 1960: a catalogue of species with notes on the palaeographic distribution of Nothofagus Bl. (Southern Beech), Paleontological Bulletin No. 60, New Zealand Geological Survey, Lower Hutt, New Zealand, 1990.
  37. R. L. Specht, “Geographical relationships of the flora of Arnhem Land,” in Botany and Plant Ecology, R. L. Specht and and C. P. Mountford, Eds., vol. 3 of Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land, pp. 415–478, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1958.
  38. N. T. Burbidge, “The phytogeography of the Australian region,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 75–211, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. H. T. Clifford and L. Watson, Identifying Grasses: Data, Methods and Illustrations, Queensland University Press, St Lucia, Australia, 1977.
  40. P. W. Hattersley, “The distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in Australia in relation to climate,” Oecologia, vol. 57, no. 1-2, pp. 113–128, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. W. Hattersley and L. Watson, “Anatomical parameters for predicting photosynthetic pathways of grass leaves: the “maximal lateral cell count” and the “maximal cell distance count”,” Phytomorphology, vol. 25, pp. 325–333, 1975.
  42. P. W. Hattersley and L. Watson, “C4 grasses: an anatomical criterion for distinguishing between NADP-Malic enzyme species and PCK or NAD-Malic enzyme species,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 297–308, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. J. D. Hooker, “On the flora of Australia, being part of an Introductory Essay to Flora Tasmaniae,” in The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage of H. M. Discovery Ships Erebus and Terror, in the Years 1839–1843, vol. 1, Part III, pp. 27–128, UK, 1860.
  44. R. L. Specht, “Major vegetation formations in Australia,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 163–297, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  45. R. L. Specht, “Origin and evolution of terrestrial plant communities in the wet-dry tropics of Australia,” Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, vol. 15, pp. 19–30, 1988. View at Scopus
  46. F. Loewe, “The intake of solar radiation by slopes, with cloudless sky,” Commonwealth of Australia Bureau of Meteorology Bulletin, no. 45, 1962.
  47. D. A. Feary, P. J. Davies, C. J. Pigram, and P. A. Symonds, “Climatic evolution and control on carbonate deposition in northeast Australia,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 341–361, 1991.
  48. N. J. Shackleton and J. P. Kennett, “Palaeotemperature history of the Cenozoic and the initiation of Antarctic glaciation: oxygen and carbon isotope analyses in DSDP sites 277, 279, 281,” in Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 29, pp. 743–755, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, 1975.
  49. D. Walker, Ed., Bridge and Barrier: The Natural and Cultural History of Torres Strait, Australian National University Press, Canberra, Australia, 1972.
  50. J. G. Wood, “An analysis of the vegetation of Kangaroo Island and the adjacent peninsulas,” Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 54, pp. 105–139, 1930.
  51. G. G. Beckmann, “Development of soil landscapes,” in Soils. An Australian Viewpoint, Sponsored by C.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils, pp. 163–169, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, 1983.
  52. W. F. Willmott, “Rocks and Landscapes of the National Parks of Southern Queensland,” Geological Society of Australia, Queensland Division, Brisbane, Australia, 2004.
  53. H. C. T. Stace Jr., G. D. Hubble, R. Brewer, et al., A Handbook of Australian Soils, Rellim Technical Publications, Glenside, Australia, 1968.
  54. M. L Bird, B. Fyfe, A. Chivas, and F. Longstaff, “Deep weathering at extra-tropical latitudes: a response to increased atmospheric CO2,” in Proceedings of the International Conference, Soils and the Greenhouse Effect, A. F. Bouwman, Ed., pp. 383–389, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1990.
  55. G. Baker, “Opal phytoliths in some Victorian soils and ‘red rain’ residues,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 64–87, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. G. Baker, “A contrast in the opal phytolith assemblages in two Victorian soils,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 88–96, 1959. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. C. G. Stephens, “Laterite and silcrete in Australia: a study of the genetic relationships of laterite and silcrete and their companion materials, and their collective significance in the formation of the weathered mantle, soils, relief and drainage of the Australian continent,” Geoderma, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5–52, 1971. View at Scopus
  58. T. Langford-Smith, Ed., Silcrete in Australia, Department of Geography, University of New England, Armidale, Australia, 1978.
  59. G. H. Dury, G. M. Habermann, et al., “Australian silcretes and Northern Hemisphere correlatives,” in Silcrete in Australia, T. Langford-Smith, Ed., pp. 223–259, Department of Geography, University of New England, Armidale, Australia, 1978.
  60. G. D. Hubble, R. F. Isbell, and K. H. Northcote, “Features of Australian soils,” in Soils. An Australian Viewpoint, Sponsored by C.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils, pp. 17–47, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, Australia, 1983.
  61. R. L. Specht, The Vegetation of South Australia, Government Printer, Adelaide, Australia, 1972.
  62. R. L. Crocker, Post-Miocene Climatic and Geologic History and its Significance in Relation to the Genesis of the Major Soil Types of South Australia, Bulletin No. 193, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1946.
  63. R. L. Crocker and J. G. Wood, “Some historical influences on the development of the South Australian vegetation communities and their bearing on concepts and classification in ecology,” Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 71, pp. 91–136, 1947.
  64. R. L. Specht and C. P. Mountford, Eds., Botany and Plant Ecology, vol. 3 of Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1958.
  65. M. Thomas and M. Neale, Eds., Exploring the Legacy of the 1948 Arnhem Land Expedition, ANU E-Press/Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, 2011.
  66. R. L. Specht, “Climate, geology, soils and plant ecology of the northern portion of Arnhem Land,” in Botany and Plant Ecology, R. L. Specht and C. P. Mountford, Eds., vol. 3 of Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land, pp. 314–333, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1958.
  67. R. L. Specht, R. B. Salt, and S. Reynolds, “Vegetation in the vicinity of Weipa, North Queensland,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, vol. 88, pp. 17–38, 1977.
  68. R. L. Specht and A. Specht, “Canopy structure in Eucalyptus-dominated communities in Australia along climatic gradients,” Acta Oecologia, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 191–213, 1989.
  69. R. L. Specht and A. Specht, “Species richness of sclerophyll (heathy) plant communities in Australia—the influence of overstorey cover,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 337–350, 1989. View at Scopus
  70. R. W. Braithwaite, J. W. Winter, J. A. Taylor, and B. S. Parker, “Patterns of diversity and structure of mammalian assemblages in the Australian tropics,” Australian Mammalogy, vol. 8, pp. 171–197, 1985.
  71. P. C. Catling, “Vertebrates,” in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. A Data Source Book, R. L. Specht, Ed., pp. 171–197, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
  72. I. L. Ophel, M. Hoppenheit, et al., “Effects of ionizing radiation on aquatic organisms,” in Report on the Panel on the Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems, Part II, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1976.
  73. A. M. Scott and G. W. Prescott, “Some freshwater algae from Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia,” in Botany and Plant Ecology, R. L. Specht and C. P. Mountford, Eds., vol. 3 of Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land, pp. 9–136, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1958.
  74. A. M. Scott and G. W. Prescott, “Some South Australian desmids,” Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 75, pp. 55–69, 1952.
  75. G. D. F. Wilson, C. L. Humphrey, D. J. Colgan, K. A. Gray, and R. N. Johnson, “Monsoon-influenced speciation patterns in a species flock of Eophreatoicus Nicholls (Isopoda; Crustacea),” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 349–364, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. M. Specht and R. L. Specht, “Bibliographia phytosociologica: Australia,” Excerpta Botanica B, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–58, 1962.
  77. R. L. Specht, E. M. Roe, and V. H. Boughton, Eds., “Conservation of major plant communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea,” Australian Journal of Botany, Supplementary Series no. 7, 1974.
  78. M. O. Hill, “Reciprocal averaging: an eigen vector method of ordination,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 61, pp. 237–249, 1973.
  79. R. L. Specht, A. Specht, M. B. Whelan, and E. E. Hegarty, Conservation Atlas of Plant Communities in Australia, Lismore, Australia, Southern Cross University, 1995.
  80. R. L. Specht and P. Rayson, “Dark Island heath (Ninety-Mile Plain, South Australia). 1. Definition of the ecosystem,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 5, pp. 52–85, 1957.
  81. R. H. Groves, “Growth of Themeda australis tussock grassland at St Albans, Victoria,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. 19, pp. 291–302, 1965.
  82. R. T. Patton, “Ecological studies in Victoria. Part 5. The red box and red stringybark association,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, vol. 49, pp. 293–307, 1937.
  83. H. T. Clifford and J. J. Mott, “Regenerative processes,” in Tropical Plant Communities. Their Resilience, Functioning and Management in Northern Australia, H. T. Clifford and R. L. Specht, Eds., pp. 68–77, The Utah Foundation/Botany Department, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia, 1986.
  84. R. L. Specht, “Savannah woodland vegetation in the south-east district of South Australia: the influence of evaporative aerodynamics on the foliage structure of the understorey invaded by introduced annuals,” Austral Ecology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 588–599, 2000. View at Scopus
  85. R. L. Specht, “Dark Island heath (Ninety-Mile Plain, South Australia). 5. The water relationships in heath vegetation and pastures on the Makin Sand,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 5, pp. 151–172, 1957.
  86. H. A. Martin and R. L. Specht, “Are mesic communities less drought resistant? A study on moisture relationships in dry sclerophyll forest at Inglewood, South Australia,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 106–118, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  87. B. B. Carrodus, Some Aspects of the Ecology of Arid South Australia: The Relative Distribution of Atriplex vesicaria Heward ex Benth. and Kochia sedifolia F. v. M., M. Sc. thesis, University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 1962.
  88. B. B. Carrodus and R. L. Specht, “Factors affecting the relative distibution of Atriplex vesicaria and Kochia sedifolia (Chenopodiaceae) in the arid zone of South Australia,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 419–433, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. R. L. Specht and R. Jones, “A comparison of the water use by heath vegetation at Frankston, Victoria, and Dark Island Soak, South Australia,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 311–326, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. W. H. Haines, Experimental Approaches to the Study of Seasonal Root Activity and Phosphorus Nutrition of Australian Heath Plants, M. Sc. thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 1967.
  91. R. L. Specht, “Growth indices—Their rôle in understanding the growth, structure and distribution of Australian vegetation,” Oecologia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 347–356, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. L. Specht, “Water use by perennial, evergreen plant communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 273–299, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. R. L. Specht, E. J. Moll, F. Pressinger, and J. Sommerville, “Moisture regime and nutrient control of seasonal growth in Mediterranean ecosystems,” in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems. The Role of Nutrients, F. J. Kruger, D. T. Mitchell, and J. U. M. Jarvis, Eds., pp. 120–132, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1983.
  94. R. L. Specht, D. J. Yates, J. E. M. Sommerville, and E. J. Moll, “Foliage structure and shoot growth in heathlands in the Mediterranean-type climate of southern Australia and South Africa,” Ecologia Mediterranea, vol. 16, pp. 195–207, 1991.
  95. C. Boucher and E. J. Moll, “South African Mediterranean shrublands,” in Mediterranean-Type Shrublands, F. di Castri, D. W. Goodall, and R. L. Specht, Eds., vol. 11 of Ecosystems of the World, pp. 233–248, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981.
  96. R. L. Specht, “A comparison of the sclerophyllous vegetation characteristic of Mediterranean type climates in France, California, and Southern Australia. I. Structure, morphology, and succession,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 277–292, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. R. L. Specht, “A comparison of the sclerophyllous vegetation characteristic of Mediterranean type climates in France, California, and Southern Australia. II. Dry matter, energy, and nutrient accumulation,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 293–308, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. P. Wellman and I. McDougall, “Cainozoic igneous activity in eastern australia,” Tectonophysics, vol. 23, no. 1-2, pp. 49–65, 1974. View at Scopus
  99. J. J. Veevers, “Gondwanaland from 650–500 Ma assembly through 320 Ma merger in Pangea to 185–100 Ma breakup: supercontinental tectonics via stratigraphy and radiometric dating,” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 68, no. 1-2, pp. 1–132, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. R. L. Specht and M. E. Dettmann, “Palaeo-ecology of Australia and current physiological functioning of plant communities,” in Time Scales of Biological Responses to Water Constraints: The Case of Mediterranean Biota, J. Roy, J. Aronson, and F. di Castri, Eds., pp. 201–214, SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995.
  101. R. L. Specht and Y. M. Brouwer, “Seasonal shoot growth of Eucalyptus spp. in the Brisbane area of Queensland (with notes on shoot growth and litter fall in other areas of Australia),” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 459–474, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  102. E. W. Pook, “Canopy dynamics of Eucalyptus maculata Hook. I. Distribution and dynamics of leaf populations,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 387–403, 1984. View at Scopus
  103. E. W. Pook, A. M. Gill, and P. H. R. Moore, “Long-term variation of litter fall, canopy leaf area and flowering in a Eucalyptus maculata forest on the south coast of New South Wales,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 737–755, 1997. View at Scopus
  104. R. L. Specht, R. W. Rogers, and A. J. M. Hopkins, “Seasonal growth and flowering rhythms: Australian heathlands,” in Heathlands and Related Shrublands. Analytical Studies, R. L. Specht, Ed., vol. 9B of Ecosystems of the World, pp. 5–13, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981.
  105. A. Specht, Temperature Effects on Eucalypt Shoot Growth in the Brisbane Region, Ph.D. thesis, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia, 1985.
  106. E. E. Hegarty, Canopy Dynamics of Lianes and Trees in Subtropical Rainforest, Ph.D. thesis, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia, 1988.
  107. E. E. Hegarty, “Leaf life-span and leafing phenology of lianes and associated trees during a rainforest succession,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 300–312, 1990. View at Scopus
  108. E. E. Hegarty, “Leaf litter production by lianes and trees in a sub-tropical Australian rain forest,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 201–214, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. R. L. Specht, “Functioning of tropical plant communities: Phenology,” in Tropical Plant Communities. Their Resilience, Functioning and Management in Northern Australia, H. T. Clifford and R. L. Specht, Eds., pp. 78–90, Utah Foundation/University of Queensland, Botany Department, St Lucia, Australia, 1986.
  110. R. L. Specht, “Foliage projective covers of overstorey and understorey strata of mature vegetation in Australia,” Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 433–439, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. R. L. Specht, P. Rayson, and M. E. Jackman, “Dark Island heath (Ninety-mile Plain, South Australia). VI. Pyric succession: changes in composition, coverage, dry weight, and mineral nutrient status,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59–88, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. R. L. Specht and D. G. Morgan, “The balance between the foliage projective covers of overstorey and understorey strata in Australian vegetation,” Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 193–202, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. R. L. Specht, G. N. Batianoff, and R. D. Reeves, “Vegetation structure and biodiversity along the eucalypt forest to rainforest continuum on the serpentinite soil catena in a subhumid area of Central Queensland, Australia,” Austral Ecology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 394–407, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. R. L. Specht, “Structure and species richness in wetland continua on sandy soils in subtropical and tropical Australia,” Austral Ecology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 761–772, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. T. J. Danaher, J. O. Carter, K. D. Brook, A. Peacock, and G. S. Dudgeon, “Broad-scale vegetation mapping using NOAA-AVRRR imagery,” in Proceedings of the 8th Australasian Remote Sensing Conference, vol. 3, pp. 126–137, Wellington, New Zealand, 1992.
  116. Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management, Land Cover Change in Queensland 2008-09: a Statewide Landcover and Trees Study (SLATS) Report, Department of Environment and Resource Management, Brisbane, Australia, 2011.
  117. J. R. Garratt, R. J. Francey, I. C. McIlroy et al., “International Turbulence Comparison Experiment (Australia 1976)—Meteorological Support Data,” Technical Paper 37, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Physics, 1979.
  118. J. K. Marshall, “Drag measurements in roughness arrays of varying density and distribution,” Agricultural Meteorology, vol. 8, no. C, pp. 269–292, 1971. View at Scopus
  119. R. L. Specht and A. Specht, “Species richness of overstorey strata in Australian plant communities—the influence of overstorey growth rates,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 321–336, 1989. View at Scopus
  120. A. S. Watt, “Pattern and process in the plant community,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 35, pp. 1–22, 1947.
  121. A. M. Gill, R. H. Groves, and I. R. Noble, Eds., Fire and the Australian Biota, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia, 1981.
  122. P. Jaccard, “Die statistische-floristische Methode als Grundlage der Pflanzensoziologie,” Handbuch Biol. Arbeitsmeth. Abderhalden, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 165–202, 1928.
  123. B. Hopkins, “The species-area relations of plant communities,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 409–426, 1955.
  124. R. H. Whittaker, “Evolution and measurement of species diversity,” Taxon, vol. 21, pp. 213–251, 1972.
  125. J. Braun-Blanquet, Plant Sociology, McGraw–Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1932.
  126. G. Long, Diagnostic Phyto-Écologique et Aménagement du Territoire, Masson, Paris, France, 1974.
  127. C. S. Christian, “Regional land surveys,” Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, vol. 18, pp. 140–147, 1952.
  128. C. S. Christian and R. A. Perry, “The systematic description of plant communities by the use of symbols,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 100–105, 1953.
  129. A. Specht, Resource Material, vol. 2 of Big Scrub Conservation Strategy, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney, Australia, 1988.
  130. R. L. Specht, “Species richness of rainforest stands on non-serpentinite and serpentinite substrates in the Rockhampton—Marlborough area of Central Queensland,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, vol. 113, pp. 17–35, 2007.
  131. R. L. Specht, Ed., Mediterranean-type Ecosystems. A Data Source Book, Kluwer Academic, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
  132. R. L. Specht, R. L. Specht, and R. L. Specht, “Species richness of vascular plants and vertebrates in relation to canopy productivity,” in Plant-Animal Interactions in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems, M. Arianoutsou and R. H. Groves, Eds., pp. 15–24, Kluwer Scientific, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, 1994.
  133. R. L. Specht and D. J. Yates, “Climatic control of structure and phenology of foliage shoots in dicotyledonous overstorey and understorey strata of subtropical plant communities in eastern Australia,” Acta Oecologia, vol. 11, pp. 215–233, 1990.
  134. A. Specht and R. L. Specht, “Australia: biodiversity of ecosystems,” in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, S. Levin, Ed., pp. 307–324, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2001.
  135. A. Specht and R. L. Specht, “Australia: biodiversity of ecosystems,” in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, S. Levin, Ed., Elsevier, Kidlington, UK, 2nd edition, 2011.
  136. G. H. Orians and A. V. Milewski, “Ecology of Australia: the effects of nutrient-poor soils and intense fires,” Biological Reviews, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 393–423, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. A. Specht and R. L. Specht, “Species richness and canopy productivity of Australian plant communities,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 152–167, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. A. Specht and R. L. Specht, “Biodiversity of overstorey trees in relation to canopy productivity and stand density in the climatic gradient from warm temperate to tropical Australia,” Biodiversity Letters, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 39–45, 1994. View at Scopus
  139. R. L. Specht, R. I. Grundy, A. Specht, and R. Berliner, “Species richness of plant communities: relationship with community growth and structure,” Israel Journal of Botany, vol. 39, pp. 465–480, 1990.
  140. G. N. Batianoff, R. D. Reeves, and R. L. Specht, “The effect of serpentine on vegetation structure, species diversity and endemism in Central Queensland,” in The Ecology of Ultramafic and Metalliferous Areas, T. Jaffré, R. D. Reeves, and T. Becquer, Eds., pp. 44–50, Centre ORSTOM de Nouméa, New Caledonia, 1997.
  141. D. J. Connor, B. R. Tunstall, and R. Van Den Driessche, “An analysis of photosynthetic response in a brigalow forest,” Photosynthetica, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 218–225, 1971.
  142. D. Doley, D. J. Yates, and G. L. Unwin, “Photosynthesis in an Australian rainforest tree, Argyrodendron peralatum, during the rapid development and relief of water deficits in the dry season,” Oecologia, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 441–449, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. D. Doley, G. L. Unwin, and D. J. Yates, “Spatial and temporal distribution of photosynthesis and transpiration by single leaves in a rainforest tree, Argyrodendron peralatum,” Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 15, no. 1-2, pp. 317–326, 1988. View at Scopus
  144. M. L. Cody, “Bird diversity within and among Australian heathlands,” in Plant-Animal Interactions in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems, M. Arianoutsou and R. H. Groves, Eds., pp. 47–61, Kluwer Scientific, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, 1994.
  145. M. L. Cody, “Mulga bird communities. I.Species composition and predictability across Australia,” Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 206–219, 1994. View at Scopus
  146. E. R. Pianka and J. J. Schall, “Species densities of Australian vertebrates,” in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, A. Keast, Ed., pp. 1675–1694, Junk, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1981.
  147. R. L. Specht and M. J. Tyler, “The species richness of vascular plants and amphibia in major plant communities in temperate and tropical Australia: relationship with annual biomass production,” International Journal of Ecology, vol. 2010, Article ID 635852, 17 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  148. S. J. Edmonds and M. M. Specht, “Dark Island heathland, South Australia: faunal rhythms,” in Heathlands and Related Shrublands. Analytical Studies, R. L. Specht, Ed., vol. 9B of Ecosystems of the World, pp. 15–27, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981.
  149. P. Greenslade and J. D. Majer, Eds., Soil and Litter Invertebrates of Australian Mediterranean-type Ecosystems, Bulletin No. 12, Western Australian Institute of Biology, Perth, Australia, 1985.
  150. J. D. Majer and P. Greenslade, “Soil and litter invertebrates,” in Mediterranean-type Ecosystems. A Data Source Book, R. L. Specht, Ed., pp. 197–226, Kluwer Academic, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
  151. A. S. George, A. J. M. Hopkins, and N. G. Marchant, “The heathlands of Western Australia,” in Heathlands and Related Shrublands. Descriptive Studies, R. L. Specht, Ed., vol. 9A of Ecosystems of the World, pp. 211–230, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1979.
  152. R. L. Specht, “A heritage inverted, our flora endangered,” Search, vol. 6, no. 11-12, pp. 472–477, 1975.
  153. R. L. Specht, H. T. Clifford, and R. W. Rogers, “Species richness in a eucalypt open-woodland on North Stradbroke Island, Queensland. The effect of overstorey and fertilizer, 1965 –1984,” in Focus on Stradbroke. New Information on North Stradbroke Island and Surrounding Areas, 1974–1984, R. J. Coleman, J. Covacevich, and P. Davie, Eds., pp. 267–677, Boolarong Press, Brisbane, Australia, 1984.
  154. D. J. Connor and G. L. Wilson, “Response of a coastal Queensland heath community to fertilizer application,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 117–123, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  155. E. M. Heddle and R. L. Specht, “Dark Island heath (Ninety-Mile Plain, South Australia). 8. The effect of fertilizers on composition and growth, 1950 –1972,” Australian Journal of Botany, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 151–164, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  156. R. L. Specht and H. T. Clifford, “Plant invasion and soil seed banks: control by water and nutrients,” in Biogeography of Mediterranean Invasions, R. H. Groves and F. di Castri, Eds., pp. 191–204, SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1991.
  157. D. Lamb, “Soil nitrogen mineralisation in a secondary rainforest succession,” Oecologia, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 257–263, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. R. L. Specht, “Phosphate pollution and soil nitrate: threats to biodiversity in Australia,” in Landscape Health of Queensland, A. J. Franks, J. Playford, and A. Shapcott, Eds., pp. 53–70, Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 2002.
  159. R. L. Specht and J. B. Cleland, “Flora conservation in South Australia. I. The preservation of plant formations and associations recorded in South Australia,” Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, vol. 85, pp. 177–196, 1961.
  160. R. L. Specht, “Conservation: Australian heathlands,” in Heathlands and Related Shrublands. Analytical Studies, R. L. Specht, Ed., vol. 9B of Ecosystems of the World, pp. 235–240, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981.
  161. D. Doley, Plant-Fluoride Relationships, Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia, 1986.
  162. J. F. McGregor and H. B. Newcombe, “Dose-response relationships for yields of major eye malformations following low doses of radiation to trout sperm,” Radiation Research, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 155–169, 1972. View at Scopus
  163. R. L. Specht, “The Arnhem Land Escarpment:—A National Monument,” Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry, Submission June 1976, Sydney, Australia, 1976.
  164. R. G. Barry and R. J. Chorley, Atmosphere, Weather and Climate, Methuin, London, UK, 2nd edition, 1971.
  165. Bureau of Meteorology, Manual of Meteorology. Part 1. General Meteorology, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1975.
  166. R. L. Specht, “Geosphere-biosphere interaction in terrestrial ecosystems,” in Global Change, K. D. Cole, Ed., pp. 169–176, Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia, 1988.
  167. R. L. Specht and A. Specht, “Global warming: predicted effects on structure and species richness of mediterranean ecosystems in southern Australia,” in Time Scales of Biological Responses to Water Constraints: The Case of Mediterranean Biota, J. Roy, J. Aronson, and F. di Castri, Eds., pp. 215–237, SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995.