Table 1: Model designs to explain variation in loss of grouse chicks during 2 summer months in study areas of South Ostrobothnia and Oulu in western Finland.

ModelSign of correlationHypothesis

1Voles+APH
2Voles, area+, area effectAPH
3Voles, area, area*voles+, 0, area effectAPH
4GoshawkMPH
5Goshawk, area−, area effectMPH
6Goshawk, voles−, +PFH
7Goshawk, area, voles, area*voles−, +, 0, area effectPFH
8Goshawk, voles, weather−, +, +PFH, weather
9Weather+Weather
10Global model