About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 610419, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/610419
Research Article

Ecological Factors and Diversification among Neotropical Characiforms

1Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Lagoas-Marcosende, 36200 Vigo, Spain
2Grupo de Ictiología, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín, Colombia
3Departamento de Xenética, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus de Lugo, Avenida Carballo Calero s/n 27002 Lugo, Spain
4Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones (IMANI), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Km 2 vía Tarapacá, Leticia, Colombia
5Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín, Colombia
6National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, P.O. Box 37012, MRC 159, Washington, DC, USA
7Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Avenida de Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012-Sevilla, Spain

Received 25 August 2011; Revised 4 December 2011; Accepted 31 January 2012

Academic Editor: J. J. Wiens

Copyright © 2012 Cástor Guisande et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. H. Lowe-McConnell, Ecological Studies in Tropical Fish Communities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1987.
  2. C. Sturmbauer, “Explosive speciation in cichlid fishes of the African Great Lakes: a dynamic model of adaptive radiation,” Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 53, pp. 18–36, 1998. View at Scopus
  3. R. C. Albertson, J. A. Markert, P. D. Danley, and T. D. Kocher, “Phytogeny of a rapidly evolving clade: the cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 5107–5110, 1999. View at Scopus
  4. C. Guisande, A. Manjarrés-Hernández, P. Pelayo-Villamil et al., “IPez: an expert system for the taxonomic identification of fishes based on machine learning techniques,” Fisheries Research, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 240–247, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. P. Vari and L. Malabarba, “Neotropical ichthyology: an overview,” in Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L. Malabarba, R. Reis, R. Vari, Z. Lucena, and C. Lucena, Eds., Conselho Editorial EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1998.
  6. G. Ortí and A. Meyer, “The radiation of characiform fishes and the limits of resolution of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences,” Systematic Biology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 75–100, 1997. View at Scopus
  7. P. A. Buckup, “Relationships of the Characidiinae and phylogeny of characiform fishes (Teleostei: Characiformes),” in Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L. R. Malabarba, R. E. Reis, R. P. Vari, et al., Eds., pp. 193–234, EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1998.
  8. D. Calcagnotto, S. A. Schaefer, and R. DeSalle, “Relationships among characiform fishes inferred from analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences,” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 135–153, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Javonillo, L. R. Malabarba, S. H. Weitzman, and J. R. Burns, “Relationships among major lineages of characid fishes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes), based on molecular sequence data,” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 498–511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. Oliveira, G. S. Avelino, K. T. Abe et al., “Phylogenetic relationships within the speciose family Characidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes) based on multilocus analysis and extensive ingroup sampling,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 11, no. 1, article 275, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. P. A. Buckup, The Characidiinae: a phylogenetic study of the South American darters and their relationships with other characiform fishes, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1991.
  12. J. Marcos Mirande, “Weighted parsimony phylogeny of the family Characidae (Teleostei: Characiformes),” Cladistics, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 574–613, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Sidlauskas, “Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: a case study from characiform fishes,” Evolution, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 299–316, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. B. Sidlauskas, “Continuous and arrested morphological diversification in sister clades of characiform fishes: a phylomorphospace approach,” Evolution, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 3135–3156, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. L. Sidlauskas and R. P. Vari, “Phylogenetic relationships within the South American fish family Anostomidae (Teleostei, Ostariophysi, Characiformes),” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 70–210, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Sambrook, E. F. Fritsch, and T. Maniatis, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  17. S. M. Degnan, “The perils of single-gene trees—mitochondrial versus single-copy nuclear-DNA variation in white-eyes (Aves, Zosteropidae),” Molecular Ecology, vol. 2, pp. 219–225, 1993.
  18. S. R. Palumbi and C. S. Baker, “Contrasting population structure from nuclear intron sequences and mtDNA of humpback whales,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 426–435, 1994. View at Scopus
  19. J. Avise, Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species, Harvard University Press, London, UK, 2000.
  20. S. R. Palumbi, A. P. Martin, S. R. Romano, et al., The Simple Fool’s Guide to PCR (ver. 2.0), Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii Special Publication, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1991.
  21. S. Rozenand and H. Skaletsky, “Primer3 on the WWW for general users and for biologist programmers,” in Bioinformatics Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, S. Krawetz and S. E. Misener, Eds., pp. 365–386, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, USA, 2000.
  22. J. D. Thompson, T. J. Gibson, F. Plewniak, F. Jeanmougin, and D. G. Higgins, “The CLUSTAL X windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 25, no. 24, pp. 4876–4882, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. K. Tamura, J. Dudley, M. Nei, and S. Kumar, “MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 1596–1599, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Posada and K. A. Crandall, “MODELTEST: testing the model of DNA substitution,” Bioinformatics, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 817–818, 1998. View at Scopus
  25. H. Akaike, “New look at statistical-model identification,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 716–723, 1974. View at Scopus
  26. J. S. Farris, M. Kallersjo, A. G. Kluge, et al., “Testing significance of incongruence,” Cladistics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 315–319, 1994.
  27. D. L. Swofford, PAUP. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and other methods), version 4, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass, USA, 2000.
  28. D. J. Eernisse and A. G. Kluge, “Taxonomic congruence versus total evidence, and amniote phylogeny inferred from fossils, molecules, and morphology,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1170–1195, 1993. View at Scopus
  29. I. P. Farias, G. Ortí, and A. Meyer, “Total evidence: molecules, morphology, and the phylogenetics of cichlid fishes,” Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 76–92, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. G. R. Liu and M. M. Miyamoto, “Phylogenetic assessment of molecular and morphological data for eutherian mammals,” Systematic Biology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 54–64, 1999. View at Scopus
  31. C. W. Cunningham, “Can three incongruence tests predict when data should be combined?” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 733–740, 1997. View at Scopus
  32. J. J. Wiens, “Combining data sets with different phylogenetic histories,” Systematic Biology, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 568–581, 1998. View at Scopus
  33. J. P. Huelsenbeck and F. Ronquist, “MRBAYES: bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees,” Bioinformatics, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 754–755, 2001. View at Scopus
  34. F. Ronquist and J. P. Huelsenbeck, “MrBayes 3: bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models,” Bioinformatics, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1572–1574, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Felsenstein, “Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap,” Evolution, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 783–791, 1985.
  36. S. V. Fink and W. L. Fink, “Interrelationships of the ostariophysan fishes (Teleostei),” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 297–353, 1981. View at Scopus
  37. H. Shimodaira and M. Hasegawa, “Multiple comparisons of log-likelihoods with applications to phylogenetic inference,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1114–1116, 1999. View at Scopus
  38. L. Breiman, J. Friedman, R. Olshen, et al., Classification and Regression Trees, Wadsworth, 1984.
  39. W.-Y. Loh, “Classification and regression tree methods,” in Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability, F. Ruggeri, R. Kenett, and F. Faltin, Eds., pp. 315–323, Wiley, 2008.
  40. T. Hastie, R. Tibshirani, and J. Friedman, The Elements of Statistical Learning. Data Mining, Inference and Prediction, Springer, 2001.
  41. W. Ñ. Venables and B. D. Ripley, Modern Applied Statistics with S, Springer, 2002.
  42. C. Guisande, A. Vaamonde, and A. Barreiro, Tratamiento de Datos, Díaz de Santos, Madrid, Spain, 2010.
  43. S. P. Blomberg, T. Garland, and A. R. Ives, “Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile,” Evolution, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 717–745, 2003. View at Scopus
  44. R Development Core Team, “R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing,” Vienna, Austria, 2009, http://www.r-project.org/.
  45. S. W. Kembel, D. D. Ackerly, S. P. Blomberg, et al., “picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology,” R package version 0.7-0, 2009, http://picante.r-forge.r-project.org.
  46. M. Pagel, “Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution,” Nature, vol. 401, no. 6756, pp. 877–884, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Harmon, J. Weir, C. Brock, R. Glor, W. Challenger, and G. Hunt, “geiger: Analysis of evolutionary diversification,” R package version 1.3-1, 2009.
  48. J. Gatesy, P. O'Grady, and R. H. Baker, “Corroboration among data sets in simultaneous analysis: hidden support for phylogenetic relationships among higher level artiodactyl taxa,” Cladistics, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 271–313, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. P. Vari, “Phylogenetic relationships of the families Curimatidae, Prochilodontidae, Anostomidae, and Chilodontidae,” Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, vol. 378, no. 1, pp. 1–60, 1983.
  50. G. Ortí, A. Sivasundar, K. Dietz, and M. Jégu, “Phylogeny of the Serrasalmidae (Characiformes) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 343–351, 2008. View at Scopus
  51. J. M. Mirande, “Phylogeny of the family characidae (teleostei: Characiformes): from characters to taxonomy,” Neotropical Ichthyology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 385–568, 2010. View at Scopus
  52. C. A. S. Lucena and N. E. Menezes, “A phylogenetic analysis of Roestes Günther and Gilbertolus Eigenmann, with a hypothesis on the relationships of the Cynodontidae and Acestrorhynchidae (Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes),” in Phylogeny and Classification of Neotropical Fishes, L. R. Malabarba, R. E. Reis, R. P. Vari, et al., Eds., pp. 261–278, EDIPUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 1998.
  53. G. Ortí, P. Petry, J. I. R. Porto, M. Jégu, and A. Meyer, “Patterns of nucleotide change in mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes and the phylogeny of piranhas,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 169–182, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. M. Zanata and R. P. Vari, “The family Alestidae (Ostariophysi, Characiformes): a phylogenetic analysis of a trans-Atlantic clade,” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 1–144, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. S. Flecker, “Ecosystem engineering by a dominant detritivore in a diverse tropical stream,” Ecology, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 1845–1854, 1996. View at Scopus
  56. R. M. C. Castro and R. P. Vari, “Detritivores of the South American fish family Prochilodontidae Teleostei: Ostariophysi: Characiformes): a phylogenetic and revisionary study,” Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, vol. 622, pp. 1–189, 2004.
  57. M. Goulding, The Fishes and the Forest: Explorations in the Amazonian Natural History, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 1980.
  58. J. Géry, Characoids of the World, T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, NJ, USA, 1977.
  59. N. S. Hahn, A. A. Agostinho, L. C. Gomes, and L. M. Bini, “Estrutura trófica da ictiofauna do reservatório: De Itaipu (Paraná-Brazil) nos Primeiros Anos de sua Formação,” Interciencia, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 299–305, 1998. View at Scopus
  60. C. Castellanos, Distribución especial de la comunidad de peces en una quebrada de aguas negras amazónicas, Leticia, Colombia, Tesis de pregrado, Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia, 2002.
  61. G. Galvis, J. Mojica, S. Duque, et al., “Peces del medio Amazonas. Región de Leticia,” Conservación Internacional, serie de guías tropicales de campo 5, 2006.
  62. V. L. L. De Almeida, N. S. Hahn, and A. E. A. D. M. Vazzoler, “Feeding patterns in five predatory fishes of the high Paraná River floodplain (PR, Brazil),” Ecology of Freshwater Fish, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 123–133, 1997. View at Scopus
  63. P. D. Danley and T. D. Kocher, “Speciation in rapidly diverging systems: lessons from Lake Malawi,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1075–1086, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. T. Streelman and P. D. Danley, “The stages of vertebrate evolutionary radiation,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 126–131, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. T. Streelman, M. Alfaro, M. W. Westneat, D. R. Bellwood, and S. A. Karl, “Evolutionary history of the parrotfishes: biogeography, ecomorphology, and comparative diversity,” Evolution, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 961–971, 2002. View at Scopus
  66. L. Rüber, J. L. Van Tassell, and R. Zardoya, “Rapid speciation and ecological divergence in the American seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini) inferred from a molecular phylogeny,” Evolution, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1584–1598, 2003. View at Scopus
  67. R. M. N. Alexander, Functional Design of Fishes, Hutchinson and Co., London, UK, 1967.
  68. D. H. Evans and J. B. Clauborne, The Physiology of Fishes, C. R. C. Press, 2006.
  69. E. M. Standen and G. V. Lauder, “Dorsal and anal fin function in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus: three-dimensional kinematics during propulsion and maneuvering,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 208, no. 14, pp. 2753–2763, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. L. R. Malabarba and S. H. Weitzman, “Description of a new genus with six new species from southern Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, with a discussion of a putative characid clade (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae),” Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 67–151, 2003.
  71. B. de Mérona and J. Rankin-de-Mérona, “Food resource partitioning in a fish community of the central Amazon floodplain,” Neotropical Ichthyology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 75–84, 2004.
  72. E. A. Luiz, A. A. Agostinho, L. C. Gomes, and N. S. Hahn, “Ecologia trófica de peixes em riachos da bacia do rio Paraná,” Revista Brazileira de Biologia, vol. 58, pp. 273–285, 1998.
  73. L. G. Nico and D. C. Taphorn, “Food habits of piranhas in the low llanos of Venezuela,” Biotropica, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 311–321, 1988. View at Scopus
  74. R. P. Vari, “A phylogenetic study of the Neotropical characiform family Curimatidae (Pisces: Ostariophysi),” Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, vol. 471, pp. 1–71, 1989.
  75. M. Pouilly, F. Lino, J. G. Bretenoux, and C. Rosales, “Dietary-morphological relationships in a fish assemblage of the Bolivian Amazonian floodplain,” Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1137–1158, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. Fugi, N. S. Hahn, and A. A. Agostinho, “Feeding styles of five species of bottom-feeding fishes of the high Paraná River,” Environmental Biology of Fishes, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 297–307, 1996. View at Scopus
  77. R. Neves Dos Santos, E. J. G. Ferreira, and S. Amadio, “Effect of seasonality and trophic group on energy acquisition in Amazonian fish,” Ecology of Freshwater Fish, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 340–348, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. Taphorn, “The characiform fishes of the Apure River drainage,” Biollania no. 4, Guanare, Venezuela, 1992.
  79. G. J. Galvis, J. I. Mojica, S. Duque, et al., “Peces del medio Amazonas Región del Leticia,” Conservación Internacional, serie de guías tropicales de campo 5, Bogotá, Colombia, 2006.
  80. A. L. Netto-Ferreira, M. P. Albrecht, J. L. Nessimian, and E. P. Caramaschi, “Feeding habits of Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes: Gasteropelecidae) in the upper rio Tocantins, Brazil,” Neotropical Ichthyology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 2007. View at Scopus
  81. S. H. Weitzman and L. Palmer, “Do freshwater hatchetfishes really fly?” Tropical Fish Hobbyist, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 195–206, 1996.
  82. S. H. Weitzman and L. Palmer, “Family Gasteropelecidae,” in Checklist of the Freshwater fishes of South and Central America, R. E. Reis, S. O. Kullander, and C. Ferraris Jr., Eds., pp. 101–103, Edipucrs, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2003.