About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 801683, 21 pages
Research Article

Ecological Gradients Influencing Waterbird Communities in Black Water Lakes in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Central Amazonia

Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69067-375 Manaus, AM, Brazil

Received 20 September 2011; Revised 3 November 2011; Accepted 3 November 2011

Academic Editor: Pavlos Kassomenos

Copyright © 2012 Renato Cintra. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. R. Willig, D. M. Kaufman, and R. D. Stevens, “Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale, and synthesis,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 34, pp. 273–309, 2003. View at Scopus
  2. R. Ricklefs and D. Schluter, Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1993.
  3. D. A. Scott and M. Carbonell, A Directory of Neotropical Wetlands, IUCN Cambridge CB3 0DL, Cambridge, UK, 1986.
  4. R. Cintra, T. M. Sanaiotti, and M. Cohn-Haft, “Spatial distribution and habitat of the Anavilhanas Archipelago bird community in the Brazilian Amazon,” Biodiversity and Conservation, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 313–336, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Cintra, P. M. R. S. Dos Santos, and C. B. Leite, “Composition and structure of the lacustrine bird communities of seasonally flooded wetlands of Western Brazilian Amazonia at high water,” Waterbirds, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 521–540, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. L. Guadagnin, A. S. Peter, L. F. Carvalho Perello, and L. Maltchik, “Spatial and temporal patterns of waterbird assemblages in fragmented wetlands of Southern Brazil,” Waterbirds, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 261–272, 2005. View at Scopus
  7. C. Lévêque, E. V. Balian, and K. Martens, “An assessment of animal species diversity in continental waters,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 542, no. 1, pp. 39–67, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Steinmetz, S. L. Kohler, and D. A. Soluk, “Birds are overlooked top predators in aquatic food webs,” Ecology, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1324–1328, 2003. View at Scopus
  9. S. P. Hubbell, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2001.
  10. M. A. Cohn-Haft, L. N. Naka, and A. M. Fernandes, “Padrões de distribuição da avifauna da várzea dos rios Solimões e Amazonas,” in Conservação da Várzea: Identificação e Caracterização de Regiões Biogeográficas, A. L. K. M. Albernaz, Ed., MMA, CNITAE Edições IBAMA, Pró-várzea, Brasília, 2007.
  11. P. Petermann, “The birds,” in The Central Amazon Floodplain: Ecology of a Pulsing System, W. J. Junk, Ed., Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
  12. G. H. Rosenberg, “Habitat specialization and foraging behavior by birds of Amazonian river islands in northeastern Peru,” Condor, vol. 92, pp. 427–443, 1990.
  13. D. E. Willard, “Comparative feeding ecology of twenty-two tropical piscivores,” Ornithological Monographs, vol. 36, pp. 788–797, 1985.
  14. F. Wittmann, J. Schöngart, J. C. Montero et al., “Tree species composition and diversity gradients in white-water forests across the Amazon Basin,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1334–1347, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. M. Denevan, “The aboriginal population of Amazonia,” in The Native Population of the Americas, W. M. Denevan, Ed., pp. 205–234, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wis, USA, 1976.
  16. J. M. Melack and L. L. Hess, “Remote sensing of the distribution and extent of wetlands in the Amazon basin,” in Amazonian Floodplain Forests: Ecophysiology, Biodiversity and Sustainable Management, W. J. Junk, M. T. F. Piedade, F. Wittmann, J. Schöngart, and P. Parolin, Eds., Springer, 2010.
  17. M. T. F. Piedade, W. Junk, S. A. D'Ângelo, et al., “Aquatic herbaceous plants of the Amazon floodplains: state of the art and research needed,” Acta Limnologica Brasiliensis, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 178–165, 2010.
  18. M. Goulding, M. L. Carvalho, and E. G. Ferreira, Rio Negro, Rich Life in Poor Water: Amazonian Diversity and Food chain Ecology as Seen through Fish Communities, SPB Academic Publishing, The Netherlands, 1988.
  19. S. H. Borges, M. Cohn-Haft, A. M. P. Carvalhaes, L. M. Henriques, J. F. Pacheco, and A. Whittaker, “Birds of Jaú National park, Brazilian Amazon: species chek-list, biogeography and conservation,” Ornithologia Neotropical, vol. 12, pp. 109–140, 2001.
  20. E. J. Fittkau, U. Irmler, W. J. Junk, F. Reiss, and G. W. Schimdt, “Productivity, biomass and population dynamics in Amazonian waterbodies,” in Tropical Ecological Systems, F. B. Golley and E. Medina, Eds., vol. 11 of Ecological Studies, pp. 289–311, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1975.
  21. W. J. Junk and K. Furch, “The physical and chemical properties of Amazonian waters and their relationships with the biota,” in Key Environments: Amazonia, G. T. Prance and T. E. Lovejoy, Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1985.
  22. G. V. Trevisan and B. R. Forsberg, “Relationships among nitrogen and total phosphorus, algal biomass and zooplankton density in the central Amazonia lakes,” Hydrobiologia, vol. 586, no. 1, pp. 357–365, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Adis, “Seasonal igapó-forests of Central Amazônia blackwater rivers and their terrestrial arthropod fauna,” in The Amazon. Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and Its Basin, Monographiae Biologicae, H. Sioli, Ed., pp. 245–268, Junk, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1984.
  24. D. F. Stotz, J. W. Fitzpatrick, T. A. Parker III, D. K. Moskovits, and D. K. Moskovits, Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1996.
  25. J. M. Ayres, As Matas de Várzea do Mamirauá, MCT-CNPq-PTU, SCM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1993.
  26. G. T. Prance, “A terminologia dos tipos de florestas amazônicas sujeitas a inundação,” Acta Amazônica, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 495–504, 1980.
  27. J. M. Pires and G. T. Prance, “The vegetation types of the Brazilian Amazon,” in Key Environments: Amazonia, G. T. Prance and T. E. Lovejoy, Eds., Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK, 1985.
  28. M. Goulding, R. Bartem, and E. Ferreira, The Smithsonian Atlas of the Amazon, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
  29. H. Sioli, The Amazon: Limnology and Landscape Ecology of a Mighty Tropical River and Its Basin, W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1984.
  30. S. Filoso and M. R. Williams, “The hydrochemical influence of the Branco River on the Negro River and Anavilhanas archipelago, Amazonas, Brazil,” Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 563–585, 2000. View at Scopus
  31. M. Worbes, “The forest Ecosystem of the floodplains,” in The Central Amazon Floodplain—Ecology of a Pulsing System, W. J. Junk, Ed., vol. 126, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
  32. R. Cintra and M. Rosas, “As aves migratórias neárticas no Parque Nacional de Anavilhanas,” in Conservação de Espécies Migratórias Neárticas no Brasil, pp. 55–58, CEMAVE; Conservação Internacional; Sociedade Fritz Müller de Ciências Naturais, 2011.
  33. D. I. MacKenzie, J. D. Nichols, J. E. Hines, M. G. Knutson, and A. B. Franklin, “Estimating site occupancy, colonization, and local extinction when a species is detected imperfectly,” Ecology, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 2200–2207, 2003. View at Scopus
  34. J. Oksanen, F. Guillaume Blanchet, R. Kindt, et al., vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.0-0, 2011.
  35. J. Del Hoyo, A. Elliott, and J. Sargatal, Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 1–16, Linx Editions, Barcelona, Spain, 1992–2011.
  36. J. C. Valderrama, “The simultaneous analysis of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in natural waters,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 109–122, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Global Mapper, Version 6.09, Global Mapper Software LLC, Olathe, Kan, USA, 2004-2005.
  38. D. R. Patton, “A diversity index for quantifying habitat edge,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 3, pp. 171–173, 1975.
  39. M. T. F. Piedade, W. J. Junk, J. Adis, and P. Parolin, “Ecologia, zonação e colonização de vegetação arbórea das ilhas Anavilhanas,” Pesquisa Botânica, vol. 56, pp. 117–144, 2005.
  40. W. J. Junk and M. Piedade, “Plant life in the floodplain with special reference to herbaceous plants,” in The Central Amazon Floodplain—Ecology of a Pulsing System, W. J. Junk, Ed., vol. 126 of Ecological Studies, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1997.
  41. B. McCune and M. J. Mefford, Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data, Version 4.25, MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Ore, USA, 1999.
  42. I. Borg and P. Groenen, Modern Multidimensional Scaling, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  43. E. W. Beals, “Bray-Curtis ordinations: an effective strategy for analysis of multivariate ecological data,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 14, no. C, pp. 1–55, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. R. Clarke, “Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure,” Australian Journal of Ecology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 117–143, 1993. View at Scopus
  45. P. Legendre and L. Legendre, Numerical Ecology, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1998.
  46. M. J. Anderson and T. J. Willis, “Canonical analysis of principal coordinates: a useful method of constrained ordination for ecology,” Ecology, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 511–525, 2003. View at Scopus
  47. R. C. MacNally, “On characterizing foraging versatility, illustrated by using birds,” Oikos, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 95–106, 1994. View at Scopus
  48. P. R. Minchin, “An evaluation of the relative robustness of techniques for ecological ordination,” Vegetatio, vol. 69, no. 1-3, pp. 89–107, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Cintra, “Spatial distribution and foraging tactics of tyrant flycatchers in two habitats in the Brazilian Amazon,” Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 17–27, 1997. View at Scopus
  50. C. L. Olson, “On choosing a test statistic in multivariate analysis of variance,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 579–586, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. R. Johnson and C. A. Field, “Using fixed-effects model multivariate analysis of variance in marine biology and ecology,” Oceanography and Marine Biology, vol. 31, pp. 177–221, 1993. View at Scopus
  52. L. Wilkinson, Systat: The System for Statistics, version 12, SYSTAT Software Inc., Evanston, Ill, USA, 2007.
  53. C. A. R. M. Araujo-Lima, L. P. S. Portugal, and E. G. Ferreira, “Fish- macrophyte relationship in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, a black water system in the Central Amazon,” Journal of Fish Biology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1986. View at Scopus
  54. C. Granado-Lorencio, C. R. M. Araujo Lima, and J. Lobón-Cerviá, “Abundance—distribution relationships in fish assembly of the Amazonas floodplain lakes,” Ecography, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 515–520, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. A. Kushlan, J. G. Ogden, and A. L. Higer, “Relation of water level and fish availability to wood stork reproduction in the southern Everglades, Florida,” Open File Report 75, U.S. Geological Survey, Tallahassee, Fla, USA, 1975.
  56. R. Tompson and C. Towsend, “A truce with neutral theory: local deterministic factors, special traits and dispersal limitations determine patterns of diversity in streams invertebrates,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 75, pp. 474–464, 2006.
  57. M. Paracuellos and J. L. Tellería, “Factors affecting the distribution of a waterbird community: the role of habitat configuration and bird abundance,” Waterbirds, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 446–453, 2004. View at Scopus
  58. J. Terborgh, S. K. Robinson, T. A. Parker, C. A. Munn, and N. Pierpont, “Structure and organization of an Amazonian forest bird community,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 213–238, 1990. View at Scopus
  59. W. M. Tonn, J. J. Magnuson, M. Rask, and J. Toivonen, “Intercontinental comparison of small-lake fish assemblages: the balance between local and regional processes,” American Naturalist, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 345–375, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. A. Paszkowski and W. M. Tonn, “Community concordance between the fish and aquatic birds of lakes in northern Alberta, Canada: the relative importance of environmental and biotic factors,” Freshwater Biology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 421–437, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. T. Bancroft, D. E. Gawlik, and K. Rutchey, “Distribution of wading birds relative to vegetation and water depths in the northern Everglades of Florida, USA,” Waterbirds, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 265–277, 2002. View at Scopus
  62. G. E. Crozier and D. E. Gawlik, “Avian response to nutrient enrichment in an oligotrophic wetland, the Florida Everglades,” Condor, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 631–642, 2002. View at Scopus
  63. S. K. Riffell, B. E. Keas, and T. M. Burton, “Area and habitat relationships of birds in Great Lakes coastal wet meadows,” Wetlands, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 492–507, 2001. View at Scopus
  64. M. Rosas, Influência de fatores bióticos e abióticos na ocorrência e abundância de garças e socós em lagos do Arquipélago de Anavilhanas, Amazônia Central, M.S. dissertation, Universidade do Amazonas, INPA, Manaus, Brazil, 2009.
  65. R. E. Turnbull and G. A. Baldassarre, “Activity budgets of mallards and American wigeon wintering in east-central Alabama,” Wilson Bulletin, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 457–464, 1987. View at Scopus
  66. R. Zarza, R. Cintra, and M. Anciaes, “Distribution, influence of site features on the occupancy and abundance estimates of yellow-billed terns (Sternula superciliaris), large-billed terns (Phaetusa simplex) and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) breeding in anavilhanas archipelago, Amazonas, Brazil,” Unpublished Manuscript.
  67. J. F. Pacheco, “Avifauna da Estação Ecológica do Projeto Mamirauá,” Tech. Rep. 5, 1994.