Table 1: Candidate examples of parallel ecological speciation in plants showing the strength of evidence for each case. The details of each example can be found in Appendix A. The strength of evidence for each case was coded as follows: ***: strong direct evidence, **: weak direct evidence, *: indirect evidence, —: no evidence, †: evidence against, and NA: no data.

SpeciesMin. number of originsIndependenceIsolationCompatibilitySelectionMajor parallel trait(s)References

Alopecurus myosuroides LXMany ** NANA *** Herbicide tolerance[4551]
Agrostis capillaries LXMany * * * ** Edaphic tolerance[5254]
Agrostis stolonifera LXNANA * * ** Edaphic tolerance[5557]
Agrostis tenuis LNA * ** NA ** Edaphic tolerance[58, 59]
Armeria maritima LXNA *** * * Edaphic tolerance[6063]
Chaenactis spp. LX2 *** ** * Flower colour[64, 65]
Cerastium alpinum2 ** * NA *** Edaphic tolerance[66]
Chenopodium album LXNA * NANA * Herbicide Tolerance[6770]
Crepis tectorum LX2 ** NANA ** Leaf morphology[71, 72]
Deschampsia caespitosa L2 ** * * * Edaphic tolerance[73, 74]
Eucalyptus globulus3 *** ** * * Dwarfed morphology[75]
Geonoma macrostachys3 ** ** * * Habitat type; reproductive strategy[7678]
Hemerocallis citrina var. vespertina 3 ** * * NANocturnal flowering[79]
Hieracium umbellatum LXNA * * * * Habitat type (dunes)[80]
Lasthenia californica2 *** ** ** ** Edaphic tolerance[8187]
Microseris lanceolata L2 *** * ** * Habitat type (elevation)[8890]
Petunia axillaris6 ** *** * Flower colour[91, 92]
Plantago maritima LX2 * NANANASpike morphology[93]
Poa annua LXNA * * * Herbicide tolerance[94, 95]
Schizanthus grahamii2 ** ** NA * Pollination syndrome, self-compatibility[96]
Silene dioica LXNA ** NANAEdaphic tolerance[97, 98]
Silene vulgaris LX2 * * NA *** Edaphic tolerance[99102]
Streptanthus glandulosusMany ** * * ** Edaphic tolerance[103107]

L: Levin example.
X: Example that would not have been included in this table had they not been reviewed in Levin [12].